Human Factors and Ergonomics in Architectural Designing of Contemporary Stadiums and other Facilities for the Mass Audience
Authors: Zdzislaw Pelczarski
Abstract: The paper summarizes many years of the author’s practical experience in design and construction of large spectator stands, including the largest functioning in Poland tribunes of Silesia Stadium. Specifically, it comprises a collection of the author’s own studies and investigations that accompanied the design and investment process of the multi-stage redevelopment of this object (Pelczarski, Z. 2009). The phenomenon of rapid development of modern stadiums is a result of gradual development of their architectural form, that has been evolving for one hundred years. They are the contemporary counterparts of great ancient structures such used nearly two thousand years ago for public spectacles addressed to mass audiences. The undertaken research leads to a general conclusion that the size and shape of the field of game, is established solely as a derivative of the game rules, with no regard to the factors conditioning visual comfort of the gathered crowds. In author's opinion the interior of future stadiums should be first of all shaped by proper relationship between the spectator zones and the arena. Visibility standards, must be adjusted to perception and anatomical features of human eye , consequently causing that shape and size of the arena will be the outcome of these standards.
Keywords: Human Factors, Ergonomics, Architectural Designing, Contemporary Stadiums
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