Biomechanical Model of Bare-Breasts
Authors: During Running
Abstract: Sports bras are designed to reduce mammary glands or breast movement during exercises, but there is no standardized, valid and reliable method to evaluate relative three-dimensional (3D) breast movement; and there is no literature to predict the 3D force acting on the breasts during activities. A reliable method is essential to evaluate 3D breast movement and to determine the effective design features of supportive sports bras. This study derived and validated a new Breast Coordinate System (BCS) for investigating 3D breast movement, so as to identify the most effective bra features and to analyze the effects of breast volume and bra strap properties on breast movement, then to develop theoretical models of breast force generated during bare-breasted running. In the light of this, 3D mechanical models have been developed based on a system comprising a mass, springs and dampers. The orthogonal force exerted on the breasts during running was derived. The predicted results of maximum breast force were verified with previous literature. The new methods will contribute to future research on human locomotion and the design of close-fitting garments.
Keywords: Breast, Biomechanical Model, Movement, Mass-Spring-Damper, Running
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