Anthropometry of Indian Hill Women for Development of Agricultural Implements
Authors: Pratibha Joshi, Renu Jethi, Nirmal Chandra, M.L.Roy, Atheequlla G.A, H.L.Kharbirkar
Abstract: Anthropometry deals with the measurements of physical properties which are essentials for designing any tools or equipments. For designing ergonomically sound women friendly technology and assessment of nutritional status anthropometry has the pivotal role. In the present study anthropometric measurements of 45 body dimensions of women and nutrition related measurements of body type were documented from farm women’s in hills of Uttarakhand. The aim of this study is to document the mean and percentile range of static and dynamic anthropometric measurements and to provide a comprehensive data for use by anthropologists, nutritionist and ergonomic practitioners who are engaged in designing and evaluating mechanized technologies for women. Various body dimensions in standing and sitting positions, reach measurements, determinants of body fat and Body Mass Index (BMI) were recorded for hill women working in the agricultural domain. Total 100 women extensively involved in agricultural operations were chosen for the study and reference data to specify the physical dimensions for enhancing operational ability, safety, and convenience and comfort were recorded. Skinfold thickness was measured at four sites i.e. biceps, triceps, subscapula and suprailiac. The data(mean ± Standard Deviation) in centimeters pertaining to stature 149.5 ± 9.04, Standing eye height 140.96 ± 6.89, Standing cervical height 129.33 ± 6.21, Standing shoulder height 123.63 ± 4.86 , Naval height 99.67 ± 2.02, Hip Breadth (Standing) 102.12 ± 6.11, Chest depth 85.80 ± 5.58, Chest Breadth 91.13 ± 4.48, Arm Span 57.66 ± 3.41, Elbow span 38.48 ± 2.22, Arm Length 50.12 ± 1.57, Ankle height 7.73 ± 1.01, Thigh Circumference 45.26 ± 4.28, Calf Circumference 29.54 ± 4.08, Sitting measurements, head and face, hand and foot anthropometry and reaches were incorporated. The range of biceps, triceps, subscapula and suprailiac for farm women varied between 3.9 to 8.1 mm, 6.2 to 10.8mm, 8.4 to 15.2 mm and 7.5 to 12.5 with the average of 5.9 ± 0.9 mm, 8.08 ± 1.8 mm, 12.75 ± 1.6 mm, 10.5 ± 3.5 mm respectively. It was found that body density of subjects was ranged from 1.03 to 1.06, with mean of 1.04 ± 0.003 and percent body fat was 24.5 ± 1.4. The subjects were classified into categories of chronic energy deficient, normal and obese on the basis of Body Mass Index. It was found that 46 percent were undernourished, 33.3 percent women were normal, 18 percent low normal and only 1.6 percent overweight.
Keywords: Anthropometry, Nutrition Assessment, Ergonomics, Design and Development
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