Ergonomic Recommendations for the Design of Pacifiers
Authors: Thomas Stüdeli
Abstract: Pacifiers are everyday companions for babies and toddlers. General safety requirements to reduce the risk of accidents with pacifiers are described in three European Standards (EN 1400-1/2/3 (2002)) and in the US Requirements for Pacifiers (1996). Next to these “general safety requirements” various recommendations on the use of pacifiers to reduce the risk of negative health effects have been formulated. In contrast to this, only few design recommendations for pacifiers have been published so far and most of them are focusing on or are limited to specific risks or user needs. This paper describes ergonomic design recommendations that have been derived from an analysis of the anatomical, physiological and psychological user needs. This work in the field of Ergonomics / Human Factors Engineering is based on literature search, screening of existing pacifier design solutions and interviews with parents and experts. Due to the fast development of infants and toddlers, the user needs on pacifiers are described age-dependent. The ergonomic design recommendations are written in the style of “general ergonomic requirements” focusing on the basic needs and well-being of the user and the usability of the product. These requirements should complement existing safety guidelines and use recommendations for pacifiers and aim to support the development of a new generation of pacifiers. To conclude, this paper describes some basic elements of a User Centered Design process for pacifiers for the redesign of an entire pacifier product family.
Keywords: Pacifier, General Safety Requirements, Ergonomic Task Analysis, User Requirements, Usability, User Centered Design
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