Are Rider-Horse or Centaurs intelligent Human Systems Integration? First Sketch of reversible and non-reversible human technology/machine/AI Symbiosis
Authors: Frank Flemisch, Marcel Baltzer
Abstract: Technological progress in form of machine intelligence increases the capabilities of machines to think and act autonomously on the world. This might only result in human and societal progress if these technical systems are intelligently integrated with humans, organizations and the environment, i.e. with intelligent Human Systems Integration.One key paradigm to enable this is human machine cooperation: The ability of agents to work together (e.g. Hoc & Lemoine 1997ff). An example for this is the relationship of a rider and a horse, which has been successfully translated to technical systems in form of shared and cooperative control (e.g. Flemisch et al. 2003ff), and as partially and highly automated, cooperatively interacting systems e.g. in the car domain (e.g. Stiller et al. 20019ff). Another paradigm is that of human machine symbiosis, in which two different species, here humans and machines, have a close and long term relationship, usually for the mutual benefit. This paradigm has been exploited e.g. for symbiotic driving schemes in the car domain (Abbink et al.2010ff). An extreme example of symbiosis that of a centaur, a creature from Greek mythology with a horse body and a human head. Applied to technology this metaphor is discussed for human-computer teams e.g. in chess competitions (e.g. Huffpost 2014) and in NATO for human-machine teaming (SCI 2020). Rider-horse and centaur stand for two different kinds of symbiotic relationships: A non-mandatory, reversible symbiosis like the rider and horse. Applied to humans and machines these are systems, where the humans can still do tasks without the support of the machines. A centaur is a non-reversable, mandatory symbiosis, where none of the symbionts can live and act without the other symbiont. The article will present that state of the art of cooperation, and of symbiotic human machine systems. It will structure and cluster symbiosis especially from a system and functions perspective, and make the differences visible with striking examples from the world of smart phones, automated cars and highly automated defense systems. Finally, the contribution will discuss what the desired kind of symbiotic relationship we as humans want and should strive for in intelligent human systems integration.
Keywords: Human Machine Teaming, Human Machine Cooperation, Human Machine Symbiosis
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