Methodology Based on 3D Thermal Scanner and AI Integration to Model Thermal Comfort and Ergonomics.
Authors: Consuelo Latorre-Sánchez, Juan Antonio Solves-Llorens, Joaquín Sanchiz-Navarro, Ricardo Bayona Salvador, José Laparra-Hernández, Nicolas Palomares Olivares, and José Solaz Sanahuja
Abstract: The current pandemic situation due to the appearance of the coronavirus-2 or SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) has increased the demand and familiarization of the population with infrared cameras and their thermal interpretation. Infrared radiation and the technology behind it have become a necessity not only developing new applications for the present but also for the future. In the post-pandemic world, commercial solutions to existing problems are being developed with this technology and with very efficient approaches, reducing costs and complementing many areas.Institute of Biomechanics of Valencia (IBV) is constantly innovating in the field of infrared thermal imaging and its applications in the well-being of people through research, experimentation and user validation. 3D models have been developed merging anthropometric data and thermal information based on scanners, 3D reconstruction and imagen processing. Some of the algorithms for monitoring and reconstruction system are based on a FLIR A35 thermal camera and an INTEL RealSense D455 depth sensor, a low-cost, high-performance sensor.Artificial intelligence techniques applied to images, mainly in visible or RGB datasets, have undergone significant development in recent years, however there is a gap in the application in thermal images. The IBV has compiled a powerful database for years from many users, insulation in clothes, extreme scenarios and different poses and face orientations. Many networks, models and libraries of computer vision, have been explored and some AI techniques (machine and deep learning) have been applied to extract information from those images, although open solutions and networks do not work accurately. The thermal database has been used to retrain these network models and the results have been considerably better.Near real-time, low-cost 3D thermal reconstruction, with embedded AI techniques, has been applied in facemasks evaluation, face recognition, feature and key points extraction, segmentation and development of automatic thermal measure algorithms. From feature extraction and landmark information, aspects such as thermotype, age and sex, have been also determined, or even the effects of the emotions, rotations or artifacts like glasses, facemasks or beards on the identification of the user. IBV has a huge background in this technology and develops new innovative solutions in order to tackle with new challenges, from determining the effect a facemask has, in thermal comfort or breathing rate to helping physician to diagnose certain diseases, such as circulatory, vascular problems and the effect of therapies or cosmetic products. In this way, information on the thermoregulatory behavior of the human body is provided, allowing to relate changes in thermal maps, to certain pathologies or to the effect of a treatment, skin affections, varicose veins or joint injuries.
Keywords: Human model, AI, Thermal image, 3D thermal reconstruction, depth sensors, landmarks, face recognition, thermotype, facemask, injuries, thermal scannes
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