Changes on Foot Dimensions with Elevated Heel Heights: A Pilot Study
Authors: Ao Zhu, Lee Yu-Chi
Abstract: BackgroundWearing high-heeled shoes (HHS) has been reported to be one of the leading causes of various feet health issues, including hallux valgus, osteoarthritis, ankle sprains, and musculoskeletal disorders. Even so, females are still willing to wear HHS to increase their leg proportions and beauty. Foot dimensions were considered as a primary measure of foot deformation and related to the fitness and comfort of wearing HHS. Footwear designers and manufacturers need to consider these foot dimensional changes with elevated heel heights to fit the foot deformation. However, available information about the changes in foot dimensions with elevated heel heights is still lacking. Hence, the current study aimed to evaluate the change in the nine foot dimensions when wearing HHS with different heel heights.MethodsTen young women (age 23± 3.0 years, height 161.7± 5.5 cm, weight 53.1± 12.5 kg) with foot lengths between 230 to 240 mm were recruited in the pilot study. A 3D foot scanner was used to collect digital foot models, and the nine commonly used foot measurements for footwear design were measured, including foot length, ball of foot length, outside ball of foot length, foot breath diagonal, foot breath horizontal, instep height, navicular height, and toe height. Four elevated heel heights (low heel: 30 mm; medium-high: 50 mm; medium-high heel: 70 mm, and high heel: 90 mm) were selected for evaluation. Each condition was scanned twice, and the mean of the foot dimensions was calculated for analysis. A one-way ANOVA with Tukey post hoc test was performed to evaluate the heel height effect on the measured foot dimensions.ResultsHeel heights significantly impacted foot length, ball of foot length, outside ball of foot length, instep height, and navicular height (all p< 0.01). The result of ANOVA showed that with elevated heel heights (from 30 mm to 90 mm), the instep height and navicular height became higher, whereas foot length, ball of foot length, and outside ball of foot length were shortened. No significant difference was obtained in width-related dimensions and toe height. The Tukey post hoc results indicated that no significant foot dimensional difference was obtained except for foot length between the 30 mm and 50 mm heel height. Moreover, the instep height and navicular height were significantly increased as the heel height elevated from 70 mm to 90 mm.ConclusionsThe heel heights have a significant influence on the length- and height-related foot dimensions, resulting in foot deformations. This effect was especially noteworthy, starting from 70 mm heel height. Observed changes in foot dimensions provide a dimensional reference for shoe last design and footwear production of young women’s HHS. The findings of this study could provide helpful information for designers regarding the foot deformations of young women under different heel heights.
Keywords: foot dimension, heel height, 3D foot scanning, high heeled shoe
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