Robots in Popular Sciences Compared with their Real Capabilities
Authors: Daniel Schilberg, Jelena Borovica, Lea Vianden, Meiko Litzba, Florian Millmann
Abstract: In this paper, statements from popular science sources are contrasted with data from primary science articles and studies. It is observed to what extent the opinions and statements of the popular science articles differ from the studies and scientific articles in terms of ethics and acceptance. For this purpose, the field is divided into 4 fields, which are processed independently.To begin with, the industrial robots are examined. These are used in the area of production as well as in the area of maintenance and repair. These robots are able to learn from each other and to work with each other and with humans. Even a tire change can be carried out by an industrial robot today. Likewise, new developments offer construction spaces that are difficult for humans to access. Activities that do not serve industrial production, but rather the performance of services for people and facilities, are carried out by service robots. They are freely programmable motion devices that perform services partially or fully automatically and are used in the areas of care, gastronomy, tourism, as well as private households. In the future, skills such as flexibility and judgment must be perfected. The use of some service robots is already safe for humans. Similar to service robots, social robotics also focuses on interaction between humans and robots. These are sensorimotor robots that can communicate with humans in a social manner. In doing so, they can build social relationships and constantly learn. The social robots are usually in a human-like (humanoid) or animal-like (animaloid) body, but can also be used merely as software. Examples for application are care, therapy and entertainment robots. In addition to the three physical robots, software robots (software bots) are virtual robots used for process automation. They are the result of the application of Robotic Process Automation (RPA), which includes various approaches and technologies. They are used in almost every industry. In the following paper, the applications of softwarebots in finance, healthcare, public administration, and law are examined. Only minor discrepancies between the secondary literature studied and the state of the art can be observed in the texts examined.For the industrial robots, no deviations from statements from popular science sources can be found. In the secondary literature, however, these are not found as frequently as the other robot types studied. This is probably since the interested parties tend to be companies that are advertised through other channels. Nevertheless, some publications can be found for the manufacturing and maintenance and repair sectors. The largest application area today is still manufacturing. However, current robot developments offer promising and potential benefits for the maintenance and repair of industrial plants. In comparison, the research on service robots have shown that a variety of characteristics and capabilities are attributed to them in the secondary literature, most of which are consistent with the status quo of service robotics. In the next area examined, social robotics, the claims from the secondary literature, as with the previous robot types, deviate little from the primary scientific facts. In the technical area, the claims of the secondary literature are fundamentally true, although the ability of robots is generalized in some aspects. Softawarebots, on the other hand, are partially distinct from the previously mentioned robots. Especially the terms used for software applications as software bots in popular science articles do not refer to scientific classifications.
Keywords: Industrial robots, service robots, social robotics, software robots
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