Color processing and human perception
Authors: Fernando Moreira da Silva
Abstract: Color processing is a complex phenomenon, which involves distinct variables, not being a relatively simple human capacity, as was long thought. Neurosciences have been helping to achieve new discoveries, recontextualizing existing knowledge and raising new questions.The brain is the organ responsible for decoding electrical signals into experiences that make sense for humans to perceive the world. Color vision is closely associated with visual processing and human perception. Cones, visual receptors in the human eye specialized for color vision, transform electromagnetic waves into electrical stimuli, which in turn are conducted to the human cortex through the geniculostriate pathway. The visual cortex is divided into at least five areas, present in the occipital lobe and designated according to their structure and function (V1, V2, V3, V4, and V5), each of these areas playing a specific role when it comes to visual processing. In previous studies, we have shown that areas V1 and V2 are mainly responsible for initial visual processing. However, more recent investigations have led to the conclusion that color processing is largely associated with the V4 area, since this area becomes significantly more active when performing tasks in which color processing is necessary, in addition to lesions in this region causing achromatopsia, dysfunction linked to chromatic identification and perception. We have been developing a quasi-experience with humans, in order to help the understanding of brain reactions to different color dimensions, especially color processing and human perception and cognition, comparing the results obtained with those of other projects previously developed. The study has also focused on color constancy, that is, the human tendency to perceive a given object as having the same color regardless of changes in lighting, angle or distance. This paper presents the work developed so far with the participation of various groups of individuals, with different ages and genders, as well as the results obtained by the application of the chosen methodology. Although at first glance it seems like a relatively simple human ability, color processing is a very complex phenomenon, involving distinct variables, many of which are still a mystery to researchers. It is hoped that this investigation may add knowledge, especially at the level of color processing and human perception, with a view to its future use and application in projects focused on the use of color.
Keywords: Color processing, Human processing, Color cognition
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