Artificial Intelligence (AI) implementation in the Design of Single Pilot Operations Commercial Airplanes
Authors: Dimitrios Ziakkas, Konstantinos Pechlivanis, Abner Del Cid Flores
Abstract: This research aims to present, identify, and propose the implementation of AI technology in aviation decision-making, as well as examine how AI can affect the transition from multi-crew to eMCO and SiPO, based on the rationale that the single-pilot human operator having accessible data in a timely and naturally interactive fashion could enhance natural decision making (NDM) (Klein, 2008; Orasanu & Fischer, 1997).According to the industrial roadmaps, the first certification of assistance for pilots is anticipated to occur in the year 2025, and this will be followed by a gradual transition to full autonomy sometime around the year 2035. The progression of events in the field of commercial air transport can be broken down into three distinct stages:•First step: crew assistance/ augmentation (2022-2025)•Second step: human/ machine collaboration (2025-2030)•Third step: autonomous commercial air transport (2035+)There have been identified two different operational concepts:Extended Minimum-Crew Operations (eMCOs), formerly known as "Reduced Crew Operations," in which single-pilot operations are permitted during the cruise phase of the flight with a level of safety similar to that of today's two-pilot operations (to be implemented beginning in the year 2025).Single-Pilot Operations (SiPOs), in which, at a later stage, end-to-end single-pilot operations might be allowed, also based on a level of safety equivalent to today's two-pilot operations, to be implemented as of the year 2030. Single-Pilot Operations (SiPOs), in which, at a later stage, end-to-end single-pilot operations might be allowed.The proposed artificial intelligence aviation decision-making research in cockpit design and users' experience was constructed by first surveying the current literature about Artificial Intelligence (AI). The findings point to the difficulties artificial intelligence poses, including its limitations and users' resistance, in shifting from multi-crew operations to e-MCO and SiPO. This resistance to change should be considered when designing any potential upgrades to the AI cockpit design or user interactions. However, the existing commercially available AI technology may be ready to serve some low-impact or non-time-critical applications (for example, weather in destination and alternate airports update during the cruise phase) in this transitional period to eMCOs and SiPOs, which would postpone the necessity for a complete flight deck redesign at this time (Stanton & Harris, 2015). The utilization of AI for the administration of systems and the retrieval of information has the potential to improve both the perception (Level 1 SA) and comprehension (Level 2 SA) of pilots (Endsley, 1995). Therefore, the single-pilot human operator in the NDM cockpit environment who has data accessible promptly and in a naturally engaging fashion would be able to make judgments that are more fulfilling and closer to optimums in the NDM environment (Klein, 2008; Orasanu & Fischer, 1997).
Keywords: Artificial Intelligence (AI), SiPO, single-pilot operations, hazard identification, user acceptance.
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