Human Factor Analysis in Robotic and Autonomous Systems for Military Applications
Authors: Hae-In Lee, Seokwon Lee, Hyo-Sang Shin, Antonios Tsourdos, Sarah Fletcher
Abstract: This paper aims to provide a human factor guidance for developing robotic and autonomous systems (RAS) in military applications. A systematic literature review was conducted to identify key aspects to characterise RAS teamed up with human operators, answering the two research questions: i) what the various characteristics of RAS that involve human roles are, and ii) how the characteristics of RAS affect human requirements. Using Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) framework, state-of-the-art researches on RAS are classified based on different characteristics, such as application context, RAS type, level of autonomy, network architecture, operational environment, and interface. Then, the effect of the RAS characteristics on human requirements is analysed by identifying their relationships. Direct relationship is established with respect to the level of autonomy, requiring trust, intelligibility, understandability, and obtrusiveness for human requirements. RAS application context and other characteristics indirectly contribute to different human requirements, by requiring or supporting different levels of autonomy. This study concludes with discussion points to be taken forward, identifies research gaps in current methodologies, and suggests future research directions. Key challenges identified for future research include interactions with human, integration to existing systems, asymmetries in level of autonomy, and validation and verification of different subsystems.
Keywords: Robotic and Autonomous Systems (RAS), Human Factor, Human, Machine Teaming (HMT)
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