Exploring various dimensions of perceived usefulness on the intention to use Mobility-as-a-Service
Authors: Nicolaj Motzer, Marco Amorim, Michal Matowicki, Mira Kern, Pavla Pecherková
Abstract: In response to society’s volatile and changing mobility requirements, many new mobility concepts and business models are currently being developed and piloted. The Mobility-as-a-Service (MaaS) concept attempts to meet rising customer demands in a needs-based and situational manner. For the success of innovative mobility offers, user acceptance and thus a user-centred business model and product development is crucial. The aim of this study is to provide deeper insights in the perception of society’s usefulness in a potential MaaS use to derive recommendations for the design and development of MaaS business models from a user perspective. This is done under consideration of the Importance-Performance-Matrix. The question is investigated to what extent differentiated usefulness dimensions (functional, emotional, social, economical, and ecological) influence the intention to use Mobility-as-a-Service. By applying the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) in the context of an empirical study the relationships between perceived usefulness dimensions, attitude towards using MaaS and intention to use MaaS were examined. For that, an online survey with more than 6400 respondents from four European countries was conducted. In this, we took care to select latent constructs with the highest possible fit that had already been tested in other studies. This database allowed the proposed TAM to be modelled using structural equation models (SEM) to analyse the relationships between perceived usefulness and behavioural intention to use MaaS.The results show that the perceived emotional, functional, and economical usefulness dimensions significantly correlate with both, the attitude towards and the intention to use MaaS positively. Especially the perception of emotionally increasing elements were identified as main drivers for an intensified MaaS use: The more likely users are to enjoy, feel good about, or have fun using MaaS, the more likely they are to use such a system. One design approach for increasing emotional benefits is to add means of transport to a MaaS package whose use is characterized by a high degree of enjoyment, such as e-scooters and e-bikes. Here, we were able to investigate high correlations between the desire for those transport modes and the intention to use MaaS. Another approach is to remove "pain points" in the transaction process in the MaaS app. It is recommended to implement an integrated booking and payment function. Generally, a MaaS app should simplify the processes that users perceive as complicated in intermodal travel. However, no significant results could be found on the social dimension, which means there is currently no need for action in improving a MaaS system regarding social components. The ecological usefulness dimension shows a significant negative influence on the intention to use on the one hand, and a significant positive influence on the attitude towards using MaaS on the other. The results provide impulses for a user-centred development of MaaS, enable an approach for a differentiated consideration of usefulness dimensions in the context of Mobility-as-a-Service, and suggest a need for more in-depth research.
Keywords: Mobility, as, a, Service, Mobility Behaviour, Perceived Usefulness Dimensions, Technology Acceptance Model, User, Centred Business Development
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