The Artificial Intelligence (AI) Certification challenges in Future Single Pilot Operations (SiPO)
Authors: Dimitrios Ziakkas, Michael Wayne Suckow, Konstantinos Pechlivanis
Abstract: The aviation industry is characterized by innovation, change management, and human factors implementation in flight operations. The aviation industry anticipates the Single Pilot Operations (SiPO) implementation in commercial airliners. Further de-crewing on commercial airline jets would necessitate using artificial intelligence (AI) in the flight deck to support the pilot duties. This paper outlines human factors and ergonomics (HF/E) certification concerns regarding Human System Integration (HSI). The International Air Transportation Authority's (IATA) Technology Roadmap (IATA, 2019) and the European Aviation Safety Agency's (EASA) Artificial Intelligence (AI) roadmap give an overview and evaluation of current technology trends that will change the aviation environment with the use of AI and the introduction of extended Minimum Crew Operations (eMCO) and Single Pilot Operations (SiPO). A review of the existing research on Artificial Intelligence certification challenges in single pilot operations structured the research themes in cockpit design and users' perception-experience. AI certification challenges in future single pilot operations were examined through interviews with Subject Matter Experts (Human Factors analysts, AI analysts, regulators, test pilots, manufacturers, airline managers, examiners, instructors, qualified pilots, and pilots in training) and questionnaires were sent to a group of professional pilots and pilots in training. In the current regulatory environment, the associated risk-based approach for systems, equipment, and components is primarily driven by a requirements-based "development assurance" methodology during the development of their elements. Although system-level assurance may still necessitate a requirements-based approach, it is acknowledged that design-level layers that rely on learning processes – learning assurance cannot be addressed with only 'development assurance' techniques.Moreover, this research focuses on mitigating residual risk in the 'AI black box.' Results were analyzed and evaluated the Artificial Intelligence (AI) certification and learning assurance challenges under the future single pilot operations aspect.
Keywords: Artificial intelligence (AI), Extended minimum crew operations (e, MCO), Single pilot operations (SiPO), Certification, AI learning assurance.
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