On-site-worker-centered design for work improvements

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Authors: Masayuki IharaHiroko TokunagaHiroki MurakamiShinpei SaruwatariKazuki TakeshitaAkihiko KogaTakashi YukihiraShinya HisanoMasashige Motoe

Abstract: This paper introduces a case study of work improvement conducted with care workers on site as well as discussions on their motivation of the improvement. For a sustainable service based on work improvements, not only user-centered but also service-provider-centered design is important. However, a co-creation project with on-site workers has a difficulty in designing a successful work improvement due to both their busy daily care work and their psychological burden to accept and launch the designed improvement. Thus, workshop designers should effectively motivate them so that they could join the design project and make a decision to launch the improvement. As for motivation in service design, Bisset introduced differing levels of motivation of a service user[1]. Bisset's framework is useful to understand and analyze each level of motivation though a target of the framework is mainly a service user, not a service provider. For motivating on-site workers, a study with a viewpoint of a service provider is necessary. We conducted 17 co-creation workshops for a year in order to design a work improvement which would be served as a sustainable service. The workshops were designed based on design thinking and focused on solving an environmental problem of their nursing facility. A manager at the facility expected the workers to think and act on their own initiative to improve their work autonomously. Though the workers tried to design a solution for safe and comfortable aisles where a wheelchair does not hit tables or chairs, the trial resulted in failure to launch the solution. A review workshop, which was conducted to analyze the reason why the workshops failed, revealed that they are too cautious to step forward although they learned the importance of understanding users, paying more attention to users and information sharing among workers. They were concerned about disadvantages by the solution such as complaints from users about table layout changes. They were also concerned about the lack of preparation to implement the solution. The review result suggests a design of intrinsic motivation for putting ideas into actions based on what they have learned. We think the intrinsic motivation could be enhanced by both a design of work improvement workshops and a design of their work style changes. As for the former, we included in the workshop design functions for extracting assumed problems during solution operation and devising ideas for problem solving, but the effects were insufficient. As Lockton mentioned[2], the latter depends on both behavior change of the workers and a design of the work environment. Future work will include a better workshop design that raises the motivation level of the workers step by step and exploring effective motivation of the workers to change their work style and workplace.[1] Bisset, F. et al: Designing motivation or motivating design? Exploring Service Design, motivation and behavioural change, Touchpoint: The Journal of Service Design, Vol.2, No.1, pp.15-21, 2010[2] Lockton, D. et al: Modelling the User: How design for sustainable behaviour can reveal different stakeholder perspectives on human nature, Brunel University Research Archive, 2010

Keywords: design for motivation, care worker, work improvement

DOI: 10.54941/ahfe1004108

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