An approach for steering advancement in motorcycle riding simulation
Authors: Arthur Werle, Frank Diermeyer
Abstract: Motorcycle riding simulation for use in subject studies has been researched in different steering configurations. The main reported issue is the high effort to fulfill the riding task, which has an influence on the results of the investigation. Steering a motorcycle can be fulfilled in push, pull and as a combination of it – which results in the so-called counter steering. The main approaches contain the classical angle- or force-based steering, with poor results in realistic feedback. Often, the lack of riding dynamics relations is mentioned in this context. We describe this novel development which allows all three (dynamic) interactions for use in riding simulation. Therefore, we summarize the state-of-the-art real time motorcycle dynamics and show which criteria can be used to determine counter-steering behavior. Also, a summary of steering advancements is given and classified into their configurations. For this purpose, from a methodical point of view, the description of driver-vehicle interaction for steer-by-wire applications is referred.Described is the development of sensor technology for a one, two or both hands steering force measurement, which is the novelty value for riding simulation. Included is the determination of the 2-dimensional force level using strain gauges, a software connection and the final validation of the technical setup on a test bench. The results are divided in a technical part and an evaluation of the rideability using objective driving dynamic dimensions. In the technical part, we show the quality of the steering- and support forces measurements. The calibration results show a deviation of 2.0 % measured with calibrated weights. Also, the bending linearity over the angle is evaluated and considered in the model, which had a high impact on the rideability. Finally, signal filters are used to optimize the signal-to-noise ratio at a latency of 20 milliseconds. This meets the requirements for use on a riding simulator. For the evaluation of the rideability we use the criteria presented in the introduction. For this, we developed a course with a lane change maneuver according to ISO 3888-2. First, we show the rideability based on the trajectory sequence and second on the phase curves: roll angle, steering angle and steering force. Comparing the curves with dynamics literature shows that the behavior fulfills the criteria and indicates a valid rideability. In addition, all riders were able to change lanes without falling or touching the edge of the road.This approach allows the investigation of steering behavior on a motorcycle riding simulator and for real ride application for investigation and validation. As already called for in the literature, we describe an approach that makes it possible to investigate rider steering behavior. Finally, we discuss the results and point to further research gaps for future work.
Keywords: Riding Simulation, Steering, Steering Behavioral, Engineering, Sensors
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