Biodyes: A new solution for textile dyeing technology
Authors: Cristina Carvalho, Gianni Montagna, Carla Costa Pereira, Carlos Manuel Figueiredo
Abstract: The Textile Industry is one of the most representative industries in the world's industrial structure and has always assumed an important role in the national economy. Globally, and according to a study by Grand View Research, this industry represented 961.5 billion dollars in 2019 (Grand View Research - Global textile market 2020-2027).However, this sector represents the second most polluting industry in the world, and the environmental impacts occur, above all, in terms of water consumption, soil erosion, CO2 emissions and the resulting residues.The textile industry is responsible for the production of 2.1 billion tons of waste, most of which are discarded into the water ecosystem, essentially during the dyeing processes. In fact, dyeing is one of the most polluting processes in the textile industry, representing a high source of pollution of water circuits and environmental ecosystem. According to the World Bank, textile dyeing industries are responsible for 20% of industrial water pollution.This reality acquires even greater proportion when analyzing the quantities of dyes produced. Every year, it is estimated that around 10,000 types of dyes and pigments, and 7x105 tons of synthetic dyes are produced in the market, for this sector. From this production, more than 200,000 tons of dyes are released into industrial effluents during the textile processing phases (dyeing and finishing).To reduce the environmental footprint caused by the textile industry, the replacement of synthetic dyes by others from natural compounds has been the subject of extensive research, through the development of new ways of coloring textile materials.One of the emerging research areas is related to the exploration of obtaining natural dyes, from microorganisms, called Biodyes.The research aims to develop a sustainable dyeing process, through the production of biodyes, from the metabolic study of the production of microorganisms.It is known the potential that exists in the generation of color and a wide spectrum of functionalities, from biotechnology, regarding the metabolic pathway of certain microorganisms, in the specific case from bacteria such as E. Coli. The main advantages of the innovation proposed in the investigation of this research work are compared to synthetic dyes/pigments, its very low environmental impact, in terms of consumption of material and energy resources, environmental pollution and non-toxicity of the resulting effluents. At the same time, the production of dyes from microorganisms, bacteria and/or fungi, has benefits compared to natural alternatives of plant origin due to its independence from seasonal limitations and climatic conditions, as well as the rapid growth of some substances and therefore with much higher biological yields and consequent industrial application.
Keywords: Biotechnology, Biodyes, Textile dyeing technology
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