Control Centers for Maneuver-based Teleoperation of Highly Automated and Autonomous Vehicles: System Model and Requirements
Authors: Nicolas Herzberger, Joscha Wasser, Frank Flemisch
Abstract: The drive towards highly automated vehicles is continuing to gain traction, however when bridging the gap from SAE level 2 automated vehicles to highly automated level 4 vehicles, there is a phase that will require temporary takeovers by a human driver. One approach is that a tele-operator is taking over the full control over the vehicle, which requires a sophisticated control center and a data connection enabling video with sufficient bandwidth and low latency. A slightly different approach can be chosen: When a driving automation reaches a system limit or border (e.g. a construction zone or an unclear traffic situation), it can request the support of an operator in a control center to support with the vehicle control. In this instance, the vehicle is not directly tele-operated but instead proposes a possible maneuver, which then can be selected, dismissed or approved by the operator, and will then be executed by the automated driving system. This is a likely scenario for vehicles with automation capabilities limited to specific use cases or in mixed traffic situations in which not all vehicles are capable of vehicle-to-vehicle communication. An additional role of the operator is responding to emergency calls by occupants by assessing the situation in the vehicle and its surroundings. Using a video and audio link, the operator can connect with an occupant in case of security or health concerns. The paper presents a human system analysis and sketches the requirements for a control center as an intermediate step towards the rollout of highly automated or autonomous vehicles.
Keywords: Automated Driving, balanced Human Systems Integration, Control Center, Maneuver-based Driving, Mixed Traffic, Cooperative Automation
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