Plant Engineer Performance Improvement for Effective Risk Reduction
Authors: Hiroshi Ujita, Naoko Matsuo
Abstract: To reduce the risk in the complex systems, it must be firmly suppressed in the original design process, so the safety concept is thoroughly incorporated into the system based on risk management at the design stage before operation. Next step, implement risk reduction measures are considered based on risk management at the construction or operation stages. As a response to the problem that remains even after taking measures in advance, that is, a risk that occurs at the stage of using equipment or processes, an failure or error is detected and the countermeasure is taken. Therefore, we will first understand the vulnerabilities at the time of implementation and the weaknesses in human relationships between organizations and teams. As counter-measures, it is the most important to give feedback to the hardware, next to software, and when it is not possible, it is important to take countermeasures by the organization or team, not to blame the individual fault. In summary, it is necessary to enhance human performance for dealing with problems that are anticipated in advance, and then to enhance error detection that remains even after setup.There are six measures to reduce risks. One is leveraging human performance tools such as Tool Box Meeting during runtime, and another is cause analysis as 5 why when the problem occurred. While effective risk reduction must be realized in the planning phase, in which there are four type of risk management activities. First, risk assessment by practical engineers at the field work planning, especially for the job situation at the first time, after a long time, or when job change. Second, on the contrary, long-term issues cleared by the feedbacks from various risk assessments in the plant and understood by executives. Third, risk analysis, which evaluates random failures or human errors, on the safety system (stand-by system). Fourth one is maintenance activities on the usual system based on failure physics. Total six approaches are completely different each other, and then sections to respond for them, not only safety, maintenance, quality assurance, but also executives, etc., are also different, that is risk management can be achieved by all members efforts in the plant.Risk reduction measures evaluation is the key for risk management in the plant. There are four methods to reduce risk. One is hazard reduction itself, such as change to small plant size or attach intrinsic safety features etc. Second is occurrence frequency reduction by preventive measures, installing barriers such as safety logic or safety systems, etc. Third is consequence reduction by installing mitigation systems. Fourth is consequence reduction by mitigating operation such as emergency planning, evacuation, etc. We must select the most effective way by discussions from designers to operators, from practical engineers to executives, that is effective risk reduction activities can be realized by all members efforts in the plant.
Keywords: Risk management, Human performance Improvement, System Safety
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