Creativity, Innovation and Entrepreneurship

book-cover

Editors: Evangelos Markopoulos, Ravindra S. Goonetilleke, Yan Luximon

Topics: Creativity, Innovation and Entrepreneurship

Publication Date: 2024

ISBN: 978-1-964867-01-4

DOI: 10.54941/ahfe1004714

Articles

Sustainability in innovation and product development: A holistic study on the importance of the influencing human factor.

It is well known that innovation is the key to success for companies. There is a consensus in science and politics that new products must be sustainable. In the long term, sustainable innovations will determine the success or failure of a company. In recent years, numerous methods and procedures have been developed in science and by leading companies. Nevertheless, it is necessary to investigate whether the current process models and tools are successful or need to be adapted. On the way to answers, you inevitably come across the human factor. In this paper, we present the first results of a study on the topic of "sustainable innovations" in product development, which focused on the human factor. A three-dimensional study was set up on this basis to do justice to the need for a holistic, systemic approach: The first dimension is the survey of managers who act as role models and carry the topic of sustainability to the employees. The second dimension is the employees who have to implement sustainability, for instance experts in the R&D environment, such as innovation managers or design engineers. The industry focus was placed on manufacturing companies from the mechanical engineering and automotive sectors, as well as manufacturers of consumer goods, because this is where the sustainability aspect is most relevant. For a holistic approach, a consumer survey was conducted as a third dimension to explore the significant part of the market. In an online survey, consumers were asked about their purchasing behavior with regard to sustainable products and their premises, among other things. The aim of the study was to ensure transparency and identify any conflicting goals that currently stand in the way of sustainable products. This paper focuses on the dimensions one and three. One finding of the study (part one) is that the human factor is decisive for the implementation of sustainability aspects in product development. The consumer survey reveals the attitudes and values of individuals and they mainly indicate a clear awareness of the issue of sustainability.

Andreas Eursch, Sophie Steinmaßl
Open Access
Article
Conference Proceedings

Business creation activities to optimize the outcomes of RDI projects in an applied science university – The Spin&Launch incubator

Universities of applied sciences and other high education institutions are expected to act as catalysts of innovations and innovators. Optimally, the research, development and innovation work they perform should produce a positive number of new startups spinning off from their project portfolio. The performance of a school within a high education institution from Finland was evaluated with respect to value creation to the local business ecosystem. The evaluation considered parameters like number of RDI projects, projects’ budget, achieved technology readiness level in each project, and the number of companies (new or existing) directly benefiting from the developed innovations. The results revealed that a good portfolio including over 200 projects, from small and fast-paced student projects to more complex national and international projects, didn’t transform in a satisfactory number of new companies spinning off from the school activities. The reasons for non-satisfactory performance were evaluated at managerial, personnel, and student levels. The two most important reasons were mindset to start entrepreneurial activities and the lack of an action plan for innovation deployment after project official ending date. An action plan was subsequently designed to improve the performance. The new Spin&Launch incubator was conceived. The incubator services are available for all local individuals and companies aiming to develop new and scalable business activities from technology-based innovations. The service concentrates in three specific action areas; Team Building – help to find the right skills from our students and personnel, Innovation Validation – action plans to verify the real value of the innovation, and Funding Reach – support to write funding applications and perform efficient pitching and networking. Benchmarking of the new incubator against other incubators and accelerators from Finland confirmed the suitability of the three specific action areas taken in, because those were not normally covered by others, and here a further reason for tight co-operation with other incubators. This paper explains in detail the analysis process, the support work within each of the three specific actions, the benchmarking process, and the first experiences of the Spin&Launch incubator with real innovation cases.

Tero Reunanen, David Oliva
Open Access
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Team-Centric Innovation: The Role of Objectives and Key Results (OKRs) in Managing Complex and Challenging Projects

Within the intricate landscape of IT projects, managing complexities, optimizing task allocation, and incessantly refining work methodologies stand as fundamental imperatives. Spanning from sophisticated infrastructure management to pioneering AI tool testing, IT projects demand methodologies adept at navigating intricacies while ensuring optimal outcomes.In this context, the Stacey Matrix [1] emerges as a critical tool for analyzing project complexity and uncertainty within the IT domain. This model provides invaluable insights into diverse challenges, guiding efficient task and resource allocation while emphasizing the need for adaptability and responsiveness in IT endeavors.John Doerr's seminal work, "Measure What Matters" [2] underscores the significance of Objectives and Key Results (OKRs) as a transformative approach. In the realm of IT, where innovation and performance are paramount, OKRs serve as compass points, guiding projects toward strategic objectives and fostering accountability at every level. Whether optimizing IT service delivery or fortifying cybersecurity frameworks, OKRs infuse clarity and agility into IT ventures.Furthermore, the integration of Lean Startup principles, as advocated by Eric Ries in "The Lean Startup: How Today's Entrepreneurs Use Continuous Innovation to Create Radically Successful Businesses" [3] amplifies the innovation quotient within IT projects. By emphasizing validated learning, iterative experimentation, and a customer-centric approach, Lean Startup principles bolster IT ventures by nurturing a culture of adaptive problem-solving and rapid prototyping.This study seeks to explore the interplay between the Stacey Matrix [4], Lean Startup methodologies and OKR frameworks within the realm of IT projects. By examining practical applications in areas such as IT infrastructure management, AI tool testing, and cybersecurity enhancement, it endeavors to illustrate how the synergistic integration of these approaches addresses complexities in IT projects and fosters iterative improvements within the dynamic landscape of information technology.(1)Hopp, C., Vargo, S.L.: The Stacey matrix and service ecosystems: insights and opportunities. J. Serv. Manag. 30(4), 444–459 (2019)(2)Doerr, J. (2018). Measure What Matters: How Google, Bono, and the Gates Foundation Rock the World with OKRs. USA: Penguin Publishing Group.(3)Ries, E. (2011). The Lean Startup: How Today's Entrepreneurs Use Continuous Innovation to Create Radically Successful Businesses. Vereinigtes Königreich: Crown.(4)Zierock, B., Jungblut, A., Senn, N. (2023). Chaotic Customer Centricity. In: Stephanidis, C., Antona, M., Ntoa, S., Salvendy, G. (eds) HCI International 2023 Posters. HCII 2023. Communications in Computer and Information Science, vol 1832. Springer, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-031-35989-7_24

Benjamin Zierock, Matthias Blatz, Kris Karcher
Open Access
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Hybrid Intelligence - An Approach towards the Symbiosis of Artificial and Human Creativity and Interaction in the Design and Innovation Process in SMEs

In a world where Artificial Intelligence (AI) is accelerating technological change, small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) are challenged to remain competitive and innovative. SMEs, which often are faced with having only limited time and financial resources. particularly struggle to test emerging technologies and develop innovations. In this context, recent studies suggest that the combination of artificial intelligence and the creativity of SME employees may provide a viable solution. According to latest findings, the combination of human and artificial intelligence, also referred to as “Hybrid Intelligence”, has significant potential to enhance innovation processes and increase productivity and creativity. The primary objective of this paper is to investigate how Generative Artificial Intelligence (Generative AI) can enhance creativity and efficiency in established design and innovation processes, such as Design Thinking. In addition, the paper aims to explore the possible symbiotic interaction between humans and artificial intelligence during the different phases of the innovation process in general and within innovation workshops in particular.In a first approach, an overview of human and AI capabilities and the use of Generative AI throughout the innovation process is explored. In addition, several perspectives on the use of symbiotic Human-AI interaction in creative innovation workshops are presented. Finally, the importance of interdisciplinary collaboration and the integration of Hybrid Intelligence in SMEs to enhance creativity and efficiency in the innovation process are highlighted.

Patrick Rupprecht, Walter Mayrhofer
Open Access
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Proposal of Color Queue Creation Task for Automatic Divergent Thinking Evaluation

In recent years, with the advent of the information society, creativity is becoming more and more important, and divergent thinking is becoming more and more important. The Alternative Uses Test (AUT) is the most used test for evaluating divergent thinking. However, its result is affected by difference in native languages, since the evaluation is dependent on a person who evaluates. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to devise a new task to evaluate divergent thinking that solves on the problems of the AUT. This task focuses on the evaluation of flexibility which is evaluated by how much varieties of color sequence are in a color queue consisting of 100 color sequence. This is devised as a non-verbal task and expected to avoid the influence of language differences. An experiment was conducted to see if flexibility was affected by cognitive load as assessed by the created task. The results suggested the possibility that the effect of cognitive load on flexibility can be evaluated.

Taiki Matsunaga, Ryunosuke Fukada, Kimi Ueda, Hirotake Ishii, Hiroshi Shimoda
Open Access
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The Effects of Short-term Meditation on the Creativity of Novice Designers: A Pilot Design Task Study using TTCT-Figural Assessment

Creativity is long regarded as one of the fundamental traits that indicates design capability. The concept of creativity encompasses the capacity to produce innovative and novel concepts or ideas, to devise or articulate imagination and intellect, and to stimulate the potential of imagination and ingenuity embodying their capacity to conceive, craft, and develop innovative ideas for products. Previous studies have revealed the connection and functionality between meditation and creativity. However, general creativity measurements, which studies to date have mainly focused on, might not be able to demonstrate the performance of designers in a creative process adequately.Therefore, this study applied a design task-based evaluation with traditional TTCT assessment, which might be more suitable to describe the creative performance of novice designers. The study aims to explore: (1) the relationship between short-term meditation and creativity; (2) the effects of short-term meditation on the design qualities in design tasks of novice designers.42 first-year design students were recruited and were divided into meditation group (n=24) and control group (n=18). Participants conducted a demographic survey and the Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking (TTCT, in its figural variant) firstly. The meditation group was then given a 110-minute audio tape-based meditation intervention, and the control group was given a 110-minute audio tape intervention, which is a recording of scientific articles. Both interventions were performed twice a week on the weekends. After that, TTCT was given to the participants again. Then each participant received an interview on the changes in mood state and creativity. After the TTCT on the second day, the participants completed the Design with Morphological Table Task (DwMT) to assess their design qualities in a product design task. Through data analysis, TTCT results indicate that short-term meditation can significantly improve the creativity of novice designers and the meditation group outperformed the control group significantly in fluency and elaboration. DwMT results show that the meditation group significantly provided better design qualities than the control group.

Yaning Li, Yu Zhang, Yumeng Yang, Tang Zihan, Zhenxian Hu, Chengxi Xie, Ziao Pan, Chengye Chen, Tuoda Qi, Zhixian Zhu, Qian He, Shumin Li, Yuan Yin, Ji Han, Peter Childs, Gaetano Cascini, Meng Li
Open Access
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A pilot fMRI study for understanding the facial perception of 3D human faces

The human face is one of the most powerful communication tools, especially when people meet for the first time. Facial perception can be influenced by many factors. Although fMRI has been used to study the neural mechanisms when people look at pictures, how people perceive facial stimuli under different movements has not been studied in detail. In this pilot study, adult participants were scanned with a block design of static faces, dynamic faces, and corresponding scrambled face stimuli with a one-back task for attention. The activation of the right fusiform face area (FFA) validates the setting of this facial perception experiment. The dynamic nature of facial movements engages primary visual cortex V1 and other visual areas, resulting in heightened neural activity compared to static faces, as they analyze and extract information from the changing visual inputs. This result provides new insights for further research work in the neural activities related to dynamic face processing.

Yuqian Wang, Yue Wei, Yan Luximon
Open Access
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Driving Citizen Frugal Innovation: Leveraging Insights of the FRANCIS Project to Improve the Engagement of Marginalized Groups in Innovation Challenges

The EU-funded FRANCIS project explores the potential of citizen frugal innovation (CFI), i.e. the ability of citizens to create simple high-value yet affordable solutions with limited resources. It does so by engaging citizens in idea challenges focused on everyday needs. In total, the project will run two challenges. The first challenge was completed in late 2023, the second one is scheduled to begin in the summer of 2024. The paper presents facts, figures, insights and lessons learned from the first FRANCIS challenge, which addressed kitchen and household items. Additionally, it outlines modifications that are planned to leverage the knowledge generated so far in the upcoming second challenge targeting hotel and travel experiences.The initial challenge aimed at involving a diverse group of participants, with a particular emphasis on including marginalized communities. To gain a deeper understanding of the actual participation of citizens in the challenge, i.e. the success to address the target groups, the paper will delve into participant data. This includes demographics, survey responses, and user interactions on the chal-lenge platform. By analyzing this multifaceted data set, the project will uncover valuable findings and identify key factors that either hinder or facilitate citizen participation in frugal innovation. Ultimately, these insights will be condensed into actionable lessons learned, informing the development of future initiatives. The paper will also examine the impact dimension of the project with respect to sustainability as well as responsible research and innovation.The second FRANCIS challenge will focus on the hospitality sector in three tar-get countries, building upon the lessons learned from the previous challenge. The project again aims to delve into the specific needs and perspectives of di-verse, marginalized target groups such as elderly travelers and hotel staff. The new challenge aims at impactful frugal innovations for the hotel, travel and outdoor industry. The paper will detail the specific modifications intended for the second challenge, based on the lessons learned from the first. These modifications will concentrate on improving and streamlining workflows and tasks, as well as further increasing the fit of the methods and tools to the needs of the target group. By consistently enhancing its methodology, the FRANCIS project aims to maximize the effectiveness of citizen engagement in promoting impactful and inclusive frugal innovation.This paper provides valuable insights for researchers, practitioners, and policy-makers interested in promoting citizen frugal innovation. It showcases the ef-fectiveness of collaborative problem-solving and emphasizes the significance of inclusive participation in addressing global challenges through resource-conscious design. In addition, it explores how a closer interaction between companies and marginalized users can be created and illustrates the benefits of doing so.

Liza Wohlfart, Adrian Sins, Carmen Antuña Rozado, Martin Maga
Open Access
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Design of Public Space Transformation under the Lens of Anthropology

Using Suzhou "Double Tower Market" as a case study, this paper takes an anthropological approach to comprehensively analyse the elements and relationships of human involvement in urban renewal and transformation design. The goal is to discover the boundaries of public space design within the research paradigm of anthropology. By exploring how the essence of social space is intertwined with the intrinsic heritage of urban history in a new environmental design context, this paper provides a strong foundation for reflecting on the practical applications of anthropology in reshaping public spaces.

Yijun Lou, Yan Luo
Open Access
Article
Conference Proceedings

Developing college students’ creative problem-solving ability: The roles of empathy, prosocial motivation, and cultural differences

Nurturing students’ creative problem-solving (CPS) skills is key to helping them develop important abilities such as critical thinking and adaptability in order to effectively navigate current society. The study aims to identify college students’ capacity to understand empathy, prosocial motivation, and cultural differences, and how these traits relate to CPS. The study recruited 309 college students from three American universities to participate in an online survey. The results confirmed that prosocial motivation was significantly predicted in all dimensions of CPS: fluency, flexibility, originality, and usefulness. Among the four CPS dimensions, usefulness was negatively related to cognitive empathy and positively predicted collectivism. Cognitive empathy was interrelated with both individualism and collectivism, whereas affective empathy was associated with collectivism. Additionally, students with multicultural experiences tended to consider others more often and to generate more useful solutions. These findings help educators better understand the important roles played by empathy, prosocial motivation, and cultural differences in influencing CPS in higher education.

Hye Jeong Park, Yongyeon Cho, Huiwon Lim
Open Access
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Implementation of a centralised system for managing processes in cultural institutions

The article presents the implementation of a centralised system for managing processes in cultural institutions.As part of their activities, public institutions promote attitudes of civic and patriotic responsibility for cultural and natural heritage, and carry out many educational activities, exhibitions, shows, concerts aimed at different social groups. All these activities require the coordination of many employees from different departments and a high level of management commitment. Each event organised requires cash control and work planning.Cultural organisations need a reliable IT solution to support staff in the following processes: managing and monitoring project budgets; managing and monitoring procurement plans; and document handling processes.The basic architecture of the centralised system of process management in cultural institutions involves the use of a number of components responsible for: data preparation in the document circulation module (e.g. costs, business trips, holidays, civil contracts, incoming and outgoing); implementation in the activity handling module; supervision and monitoring of the course of action by the management in the procurement module and the reporting module. Global reporting takes place in the factual reporting of the cultural institution's activities. The solution designed and implemented is based on dedicated modules and the Aurea BPM platform. The Aurea BPM platform enables the dynamic design of business processes.The actions taken by individual user groups within modules and processes directly affect the related components and processes. Mutual communication within the tasks performed allows: synchronisation of work between modules; continuous reporting on the progress of ongoing activities; speeding up the flow of information and improving the quality of task handling; monitoring and reporting on completed tasks during the maintenance phase. Thanks to the use of the latest technology, users can access the system on multiple devices (tablets, smartphones and computers) and have access to up-to-date data. The process management system for cultural institutions records every action and decision taken by participants in a process history with an accurate time stamp and a record of who performed the activity.The result of the implementation was presented in the form of business process diagrams in BPMN notation. The system was implemented in an organisation that is a leader among public institutions. The system provides a single location for information and knowledge about the activities performed and accelerates the flow of data, which allows to increase its quality. The automation of document handling, data validation and reporting reduces decision-making time and improves communication between process participants. After implementation, costs associated with paper handling and document archiving have been reduced. Data registers for each process allow all process participants to quickly access and manipulate data according to defined authorisations. For managers, the system provides excellent access to management data and the ability to set specific KPIs. Ultimately, it has also become possible to manage and monitor procurement plans, as well as to use the budget effectively and efficiently, allowing the institution's tasks to be carried out simply and transparently.

Małgorzata Oleś-filiks, Robert Waszkowski
Open Access
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A Pilot Study for Understanding the Lying Neck Posture with Flexion and Extension

Due to the prolonged focus on mobile phones or computers, people are exposed to a higher risk of neck issues. To avoid the radiation exposure of CT (Computed Tomography) scans, the MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) facilities with a lying posture were explored in this pilot study with 5 participants and three head postures (flexion, neutral, and extension). The vertebra angles from a sagittal view are measured, and the contribution of each pair of successive vertebras is compared with other literature. The results of this study show that the mean flexion and extension contributions fluctuated much more than others. This may be because the passive lying posture based on physical support is adopted rather than active flexion and extension maximum with a sitting posture. This suggests that active and passive head rotation postures have distinct mechanisms and should be studied separately. The lying posture with an MRI scan could be used for vertebra postures with different supports like pillows.

Yuqian Wang, Junjian Chen, Yan Luximon
Open Access
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Engineering Project Management Skill Development in Research vs. Corporate Realms

In this study, we look into into two educational approaches implemented in a capstone course designed for Senior Mechatronic Engineers. Despite sharing a common syllabus and learning objectives, the course was delivered by two different groups of professors: the first focused on a research-oriented approach working together with a research laboratory, while the second emphasized an enterprise-driven perspective in partnership with various internal and external stakeholders.Mechatronic Engineers engaged in innovative technology-based projects require a fusion of technical expertise, soft skills, strategic thinking, and collaborative proficiency. Recognizing that vicarious experiences alone are insufficient for students to master such projects, our capstone course incorporated challenges with Training Partners to bridge the gap and simulate real-world demands.As part of the course requirements, students were tasked with developing a team project that culminated in a physical prototype and a poster presentation at an Engineering fair. Subsequently, students underwent a mock interview assessment, evaluated by their professors, during which they also assessed their self-efficacy across different skills. Our observations revealed that both evaluators and students shared similar perceptions regarding certain sub-competencies, including effective communication, impact on business/society/environment, and ethical commitment. However, some differences emerged in sub-competencies related to teamwork, problem formulation and resolution, methodological approach to design, and innovation capability.It is noteworthy that students exhibited a higher self-perceived leadership capability, a very important skill in non-hierarchical leadership roles like project management, than external assessments indicated. This observation is intriguing, considering that not all team members could assume leadership roles simultaneously, and the course did not explicitly require students to define leadership roles. The results highlight that while the difference between professor expectations and student self-assessment is relatively modest, the course emphasis may influence the development of specific skills.The study scrutinized two educational paradigms: one research-oriented and the other enterprise-driven. Findings indicate that enterprise-oriented students expressed greater proficiency in understanding the course objectives and planning skills, whereas research-oriented students demonstrated heightened confidence in project execution and interaction with stakeholders.

Donovan Esqueda Merino, Hector Rafael Morano Okuno, Daishi A Murano Labastida, Jesus Enrique Chong Quero, Gloria A González Sarmiento, Arturo Vargas Olivares, Arturo Desaix López Rojas, Carlos Alberto Cruz Villar, Joaquin Loaiza Martínez, Armando R San Vicente Cisneros, Daniel Rodriguez Flores
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Design Guidelines and Strategies for Interim Innovation

This study introduces and explores the concept of 'interim innovation' as a novel category of innovation. While sharing some innovative functions, interim innovations demonstrate a unique ability to overcome traditional innovation resistances. Despite their potential significance, scholarly research on interim innovations remains scarce. Thus, this study aims to identify and analyze the patterns and characteristics of interim innovations, with the ultimate goal of developing comprehensive design guidelines and strategic frameworks for effectively fostering and implementing these innovations.Every year, innovative products with unique or advanced functionalities emerge in the market. However, these innovations often face slow adoption due to significant barriers such as high costs and performance uncertainties, with early benefits typically accruing to consumers in premium markets. Addressing this gap, this study introduces the concept of 'interim innovation.' An interim innovation incorporates innovative functions derived from an emerging product and is specifically designed to function as an accessory for an established mainstream product. For instance, an electric stand-capable desk converter, placed on a regular desk, mimics the functionalities of an electrically height-adjustable standing desk. Similarly, an electrical bike conversion kit can transform a standard bicycle into an electric bike. These interim innovations not only replicate the functions of more advanced products but also offer considerable advantages in reducing resistance to innovation and accelerating market diffusion. Despite their potential impact, academic exploration in this field is limited. This study, therefore, seeks to analyze interim innovations and establish detailed design guidelines and strategic approaches to effectively nurture and implement these innovations.This study adopts a case study methodology to explore the under-researched area of interim innovations, focusing on their patterns and characteristics. Interim innovations are categorized into three distinct groups: electric interim products, non-electric interim products, and exceptions. Each case study involves a comparative analysis between an interim innovation and its corresponding innovation. Employing the framework of innovation diffusion theory, the study analyzes these innovations across seven key characteristics: relative advantage, compatibility, complexity, trialability, observability, perceived risks, and familiarity. The findings from these case studies are then synthesized to develop practical design guidelines and strategic recommendations for interim innovation development.Interim innovations are a strategic approach to product development. This approach involves integrating emerging innovations as compatible add-ons to existing mainstream products. By combining these two, innovative features are created. This makes interim innovations notable for their cost-effectiveness and high compatibility with mainstream products. Additionally, they provide opportunities for promoting sustainability and inclusion. However, there are risks associated with interim innovations, such as a slight reduction in utility compared to the corresponding emerging innovations and concerns with their aesthetic appeal. This study addresses this gap in research by establishing guidelines and strategies for the development of interim innovation products. It emphasizes enhancing their functionality, compatibility, and appeal within the market.

Xin An Chen
Open Access
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Beyond Boundaries: Art-Tech Collaboration Driving Future-Oriented Innovation

The current innovation landscape, shaped by digital transformation and increasing complexity, force businesses and creators not only to enhance their technological and innovation capacity, but also address sustainable and societal challenges. To do so, it becomes paramount to rethink creative approaches for innovation to move beyond traditional human-centred frameworks that often lack a future-oriented and inclusive visions (Canina et. al, 2021) in favour of a more holistic conception of innovation for planetary well-being. Art and Technology collaboration emerges as a promising avenue, enabling artists and companies to design sustainable solutions and contribute to societal and environmental impact. While such collaboration offers significant opportunities, challenges hinder its potential. A key obstacle is the absence of a strategic, vision-led process, often implemented ad hoc. Futures Thinking is proposed as an approach to provide artists and companies a common ground for collaboration. This article explores the potential of Art-Tech collaboration for innovation, grounded in the Horizon Europe MUSAE project. The project aims to overcome collaboration challenges by defining a novel collaborative model, exploring the role of futures thinking in facilitating cross-disciplinary dialogue between art and technology. This approach enhances the Art-Tech collaboration process, driving innovation in a future-oriented and responsible manner. The conclusion underscores the potential of this cross-disciplinary approach to foster sustainable innovation through equal collaboration, emotional exploration, strategic tools, and anticipation of technological advancements' impact on people and the planet.

Tatiana Efremenko, Marita Canina, Eva Monestier, Maria Ida Fiore
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Design Thinking in Higher Education: An Action Research Approach to Developing Creative Problem-Solving Skills in Young Designers

One of the most important roles of emotions is in communication or motivation, but they also affect the level of engagement. Design education assignments often require students to display exceptional creativity and problem-solving skills and also to mull over many questions. Negative moods like frustration, boredom, restlessness and sluggishness will not only affect people's learning ability but could also reduce productivity. With an educational emphasis on academic instruction, students are much less motivated to learn and make more frequent errors. Creating design that evoke emotions is a framework that addresses these needs through products or services that improve emotional experiences, increasing involvement. This research will use an action research approach, focusing on qualitative and quantitative data collection and analysis technologies, to examine the impact of emotional concerns on communication design. The results can provide guidance for educators, designers, and researchers in developing innovative educational strategies that are responsive to emotional needs. Emotions are an indispensable part of the development of pedagogical ideas.

Amic Ho, Ruth Chau
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Fostering Corporate Innovation Activities through Artist-Created Boundary Media

Innovation activities in companies are essential for maintaining competitiveness in the market. In the early stages of innovation, which is known as “Fuzzy Front End”, diversity is crucial aspect. However, managing this diversity can be challenging due to conflicts caused by factors related to differences in positions or expertise. This paper introduce three types of Boundary Media (BM), which are panels explaining existing ideas, idea sketch sheets for activity participants to describe their ideas, and artist-created artworks, they were introduced into the early stages of two corporate innovation activities and researchers verified their effects. The artist conducted interviews to understand activity background, challenges, and vision of each innovation activity and created unique artworks that embodied the themes of the innovation activities based on the inspiration gained from the interviews. These works were introduced in idea creation workshops conducted for each innovation activity, and their effects were examined. The results showed that the artworks served as powerful sources of inspiration, eliciting participants' tacit knowledge, providing new perspectives, and facilitating intrinsic motivation for innovation. The workshops generated an average of more than two ideas per participant, yielding ideas and perspectives different from those of conventional models, which will be considered afterward. Notably, one of the two companies, recognized that the artist's work expressed the essence of their innovation activity and resonating with it, subsequently artists commissioned to create a logo for the innovation activity. This indicates that the artist-created works influenced the long-term direction of the innovation activity. The results of this study suggest that artists creating unique works that embody innovation activities and intervening in innovation activities as Boundary Media can stimulate the tacit knowledge of activity members, appeal to their creativity, and encourage them to recapture the essential concepts of the innovation activities, potentially fostering innovation activities. Future research will clarify the specific qualities and unique characteristics of artworks and the mechanisms of intervention effects on innovation activities to encourage practitioners foster innovation activities.

Taishi Kamiya
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