Human Factors and Systems Interaction

book-cover

Editors: Isabel L. Nunes

Topics: Human Systems Interaction

Date: 2023

ISBN: 978-1-958651-60-5

DOI: 10.54941/ahfe1003583

Articles

Measures for human design of mental stress factors of digital work in public administrations

The digital transformation is concerning people in several aspects. In working environments of many workers, major changes and challenges are becoming apparent because of the proceeding dissemination of information and communication technologies (ICT). With the implementation of new digital technologies and digitalized work processes, the demands and burdens of employees are also inevitably changing. The rapid pace of technological development can increase mental strain on employees (Gimpel 2018), and as a result, impairment in the form of stress can occur among individual employees. Especially, public administrations are under pressure, not only because they are facing a digitalization-driven transformation, but also because employees are encountered with an increased workload in their daily work due to legislative requirements. The study focuses on public administrations in Germany and aims to answer the overarching question of how the digital transformation can succeed by involving the employees in the process of change. Its also analysed how to design mental stress factors in a human-oriented way. For this purpose, the stress factors of digital work are defined as the following, according to GIMPEL et al. (2020):•Invasion of privacy & performance monitoringConcern about invasion of privacy and favouring the perception of surveillance. •Modification & complexityContinuing ICT changes and upgrades unsettle users and create uncertainty. The complexity of new technologies leads users to feel inadequate regarding their computer skills. Individuals are forced to constantly learn new technologies and undergo frequent educational trainings. •Fewer completed work tasksDigitization can make it more difficult to assess completed tasks and can lead to the feeling of hardly making any work progress.•Interruptions in the workdayThe use of ICT often introduces frequent interruptions into individuals' daily work routine, leading to increased stress and lower productivity.•Unavailability and unreliabilityDue to e.g. organizational restrictions new technologies are prohibited and it comes to an increased workload because of unstable running systems. •Information overloadThe workload increases due to higher amount of provided information and acceleration of work.•Overload and invasionDue to the dissolution of boundaries between work and private life employees force to work faster and longer where ICTs is used. They feel of being constantly reachable and a shorter response time is expected.In the paper, results of an interview study will be presented. As part of the study, 19 semi-structured interviews have been conducted between the beginning of August 2022 and the beginning of November 2022 with a total of 17 experts from public administrations in Germany who deal with digital transformation in their administrations and three consultants who support public administration in the transformation process. In the interview study, first the above-mentioned stress factors of digital work affect employees (with and without management responsibility) in public administrations were be determined. Then, with the help of an interview guide, insights were gained which concrete measures can be taken to involve employees to reduce psychological stress factors. Furthermore, an outlook is given which competencies need to be developed in the long term about dealing with digital transformation, both on part of the employees and in the role as a manager, and which actions can be derived regarding manager-employee relationships. The qualitative content analysis of the transcribed interviews will be carried out according to the general content analytical process model according to MAYRING (2022). In the Paper, a focus is laid on the category formation of the content analysis and the summary of the text material with the most important findings. LiteratureGimpel, Henner et al. (2020): Belastungsfaktoren der digitalen Arbeit. Eine beispielhafte Darstellung der Faktoren, die digitalen Stress hervorrufen. Augsburg.Gimpel, Henner et al. (2018): Digitaler Stress in Deutschland. Eine Befragung von Erwerbstätigen zu Belastung und Beanspruchung durch Arbeit mit digitalen Technologien. Working Paper Forschungsförderung. Edt. Hans-Böckler-Stiftung (101).Mayring, Philipp (2022): Qualitative Inhaltsanalyse. Grundlagen und Techniken. 13., überarbeitete Auflage. Weinheim: Beltz (Ciando library). Online verfügbar unter https://ebooks.ciando.com/book/index.cfm/bok_id/3137418.

Miriam Maibaum, Marc-André Weber, Sascha Stowasser
Open Access
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Conference Proceedings

Exploring Interactive Design Strategies of Online Learning Platform Based on Cognitive Load Theory

In recent years, online learning has been increasingly popular due to its convenience and accessibility. To improve the quality of online learning, it is essential to understand the learners' cognitive load during online learning interaction. Cognitive load theory and teaching interaction hierarchy theory are employed to explore the impact of learners' cognitive load during online learning interaction. Based on these theories, this study utilizes EEG technology and subjective measurement to measure the cognitive load of learners' operational interaction and information interaction during online learning interaction. Six typical tasks were studied, including login, search, browse, share, and discuss. The results demonstrate that the login and search tasks have a higher cognitive load and the browse and share tasks have a lower cognitive load among the six typical tasks, virtual reality learning environments have a lower cognitive load than online learning environments. Therefore, by correctly identifying the cognitive load of tasks in operational and information interaction, optimization strategies can help to reduce the cognitive load of learners during online learning interaction and improve the quality of online learning.

Bian Kun, Wang Yan, Dongnan Han
Open Access
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The Design of Mid-Air Ultrasonic Haptic Interfaces Based on the Perception of Lines

Mid-air ultrasonic feedback is a new form of haptic stimulation supporting mid-air, touch-free user interfaces. Functional implementation of ultrasonic haptic (UH) interfaces depend upon the ability to accurately distinguish between the intensity, shape, orientation, and movement of a signal. This user study (N = 15) investigates the ability to non-visually perceive two ultrasonic lines with varying lengths (3, 5, and 7 cm) and orientations (vertical and horizontal) using the palm of the hand. Key results showed that: (1) the orientation of the lines had no effect on a user’s accuracy when determining their relative lengths, (2) line length distinction significantly improved when the length difference was at least 4 cm, and (3) a clear learning curve was evident when evaluating a new user’s ability to perceive ultrasonic signals. The capabilities of UH technology identified and discussed within this study will help engineer user-friendly and functional mid-air haptic interfaces for future applications.

Jacob Loranger, Justin Brown, Henry Kindler, Paul Fink, Velin Dimitrov, Nicholas Giudice
Open Access
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Cognitive friction measurement: Interaction assessment of interface information in complex information systems

The level of Cognitive Load (CL), which is used to react to the level of cognitive friction, is typically utilized in the study of user cognitive friction. Complex Information System (CIS) interactions include both informational and operational interaction behaviors, and Information interaction is regarded as a critical aspect in defining the quality and efficacy of system functionality. TIn order to assess Cognitive Friction (CF) and inform ensuing interface design improvement, this paper integrates numerous CL assessment aspects. First, a conceptual framework for the method is built by examining measuring metric differences and integrating them through literature research, which is then combined with the user research process in design. Second, using this framework as a reference, a comparative experiment on user CF measurement was carried out by fusing eye tracking with the cause and assessment factors of CL. Ultimately, the user was provided with the CF index under the multidimensional dimension using the Fuzzy Comprehensive Evaluation (FCE). The findings demonstrate that the Multidimensional User Cognitive Friction Measuring (MUCFM) approach may more accurately capture the degree of CF in the information interaction of CIS interfaces. The viability of the comparative integration method is confirmed by eye tracking tests.

Ziling Feng, Peng Ji
Open Access
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Evaluation of The Impact of Visual Decoration on The Memorable Effect in Big Data Visualization - The Example of Bar Chart

In recent years, data visualization has been applied to various scenes, and the memory of data visualization has received widespread attention. Some researchers have studied this. However, the effect of visual decoration is polarized in the research community. Some researchers believe that visual decoration can improve memory effect, while others believe that visual decoration can interfere with memory. This paper takes the bar chart as an example to further evaluate the memory effect of visual decoration in visualization, and puts forward four assumptions: ① the visualization using visual decoration has better memory; ② The position of visual decoration will affect the memory effect; ③ The colour of visual decoration will affect the memory effect; ④ The visual position will affect the memory effect under the same visual decoration. The results show that assumptions 1, 2, 3 and 4 are valid, which proves that visual decoration can improve the memory of visualization, and the location, colour and type of visual decoration will affect the memory of visualization.

Li Yujia, Xiaojun Liu
Open Access
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Conference Proceedings

The Power to be Seen: A Study on the Accessibility Design of Live Stream System for the Visually Impaired

The career discussion for the visually impaired has long been contentious in China, particularly as social technology advances. The interview result of Guangdong’s first blind mock streamer competition hosted by the Guangdong Association of the Blinds showed that exploring the possibility of live streaming for the visually impaired and enhancing the user experience and efficiency of the current live stream accessibility design is necessary. This study applied field study, roleplay action, and case studies as preliminary research to explore and reprioritize the challenges of streaming operations and experiences for visually impaired streamers. Finally, A-Live an all-in-one stream system with an auto-follow wind camera and accessibility UI design on TikTok was designed to allow the visually impaired complete live streaming independently.

Jinbang Tan, Ranran Liao, Yifan Deng, Fucong Xu, Shaoping Guan
Open Access
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User Driven Custom Design - the solution to simplify customisation according to consumer needs

IntroductionThe objective of this study was to define a new approach for product design and customization. The approach focused on the development of several technical components able to provide product personalisation as an integrated solution to simplify the interactions between the end-user and the producer. The solution was developed as a web platform for an easy configuration of the product by the user at home and applied to a wheelchair. The finalization of a new order and the assembly procedure of the product is fully digital. This research activity is funded by the EU Project n. 872570 “KYKLOS 4.0 - An Advanced Circular and Agile Manufacturing Ecosystem based on rapid reconfigurable manufacturing process and individualized consumer preferences” (H2020-DT-2018-2020 - Digitising and transforming European industry and services: digital innovation hubs and platforms) which aims at simplifying mass customization while improving circularity and sustainability.MethodsOur Product Parametric Design Methodology was developed through a specific ergonomic analysis of products related to human factors and anthropometry. The use of virtual manikins and simulation of different percentiles, allowed to test and better define correct inputs and parameters for product customization. The solution has been developed and applied to a medical use case and validated and integrated in the KYKLOS 4.0 main platform. The aim was to provide a coherent user experience for the wheelchair ordering and customization, so the user can easily select wheelchair frame and mandatory parts, optional accessories and customize additional elements such as the cushion and footrest. Several Technical Component were developed in order to guarantee the final workflow. The methodology was applied into our “Recommendation Engine” and integrated with the “Users' Behaviour Model”, which use patient’s information, such as anthropometry and behaviour to better define best fitting products and accessories. Additionally, the workflow integrated a specifically designed “3D Modelling Component” which allows direct parts customization.ResultsThe Product Personalization Solution was intended to support the customer in the selection of parts and accessories to fully customize the product and, at the same time, also to support product designer to convert customers’ requests efficiently and smoothly into personalized product specifications, thus providing a complete customer-oriented design for manufacturing with time and cost reduction. The methodology can be considered part of what is called "ECO-DESIGN," which is the design of products based on the sustainable and minimal use of resources and which enables high-quality recycling of materials at the end of the product life cycle. The use of the circular economy concept adopted in the specific pilot case is certainly relevant to the production of customized components for the wheelchair provided by our end-user, as the production of customized components allows a reduction in the resources required to produce parts. Moreover, since these are products that are perfectly compatible with the end user's needs, the possibility of having returned products (when components does not meet patient's needs) or unused products is considerably reduced, resulting in waste of materials used. Within this specific Use Case the customization of the wheelchair frame and accessories, based on the user's anthropometry, allows the reduction of unnecessary machining such as, for example, unused holes for ergonomic adaptation. It also turns out to be reduced waste production of aluminium tubulars resulting in reduced processing time and harmful emissions released into the environment.ConclusionAlthough the solution has been applied for demonstration purposes to the personalization of a wheelchair, it is exploitable to other products where personalization based on anthropometric measurements is essential for maximizing patient comfort and reduce production errors and waste. The addressed medical case study highlighted some very interesting aspects concerning the replication and scale up potential in the medical domain. The methodology based on anthropometry to define product requirements can also be applied very effectively to a variety of other products. Some application cases already exist in fashion for clothes and accessories size selection. Furniture products such as chairs, desks and wardrobes can also be customized using the same approach. We also believe that sport equipment has a high potential for such application. The automation of this process and the direct relationship with the user's dimensions could open potential markets currently reserved only to very expensive bicycle frames. Also, the production of accessories and tool, made with additive manufacturing technologies, could lead to disruptive innovation in those sectors providing true mass customization capabilities.

Luca Rizzi, Sarah De Cristofaro, Antonio Zingarofalo
Open Access
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Ergo4workers: Usability Testing of the First Prototype of an App for the Ergonomic Assessment of Healthcare Professionals

Work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WRMSD) represent a group of inflammatory and degenerative diseases of the locomotor system caused by continuous exposure to risk factors, such as force, posture, and repetition, in the workplace. These disorders are manifested gradually and, over time, symptoms become more persistent. The workers of the healthcare sector are one occupational group facing the severe consequences of WRMSD. Ergonomic risk assessments play a crucial role in monitoring and preventing the occurrence of such disorders. Recent technological advances have enabled direct and reliable exposure measurements with wearable devices. Ergo4workers (E4W) is a system consisting of wearable sensors and a smartphone app whose purpose is to aggregate relevant data from such sensors. It aims to provide an ergonomic assessment of work activities, namely regarding the posture adopted; in the current research applied to healthcare professionals’ work. E4W was developed adopting a User-Centered Design (UCD) approach, in which after an initial phase devoted to the understanding and specifying the context of use, the three following phases are carried out iteratively: specifying user and design requirements; solution design and implementation; and evaluation. This paper describes the usability evaluation of E4W app’s first prototype. Usability tests were performed in a laboratory environment involving seven participants. The Cognitive Walkthrough method was applied, and the participants performed tasks in three different scenarios. Data regarding performance metrics of task success, the time required to perform each task, the number of errors, and actions performed were collected for each scenario. At the end of the test, participants were asked to comment on their interaction with the interface. The performance metrics obtained for each usability test were closely analysed. These results were consistent with the verbal feedback obtained, and improvement opportunities for the prototype were identified. These modifications will be implemented in a second prototype. Overall, the prototype was positively evaluated, as participants mentioned its intuitive functionalities and appealing features, as well as the app’s usefulness.

Inês Sabino, Maria Do Carmo Fernandes, Ana Antunes, António Monteny, Isabel Guimarães, Cátia Cepeda, Hugo Gamboa, Cláudia Quaresma, Isabel L. Nunes, Ana Teresa Videira Gabriel
Open Access
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Health Communication: An Investigation on Emoji, Perceived Visual Informativeness and Social Media Engagement

Compared with traditional channels of information dissemination, social media allow users to explore, to reveal and to share all kinds of information via web, reinforcing word spreading effect with such online interactivities. Convincing health information often contains clear data, distinct hierarchies and strong visual appeal. This study investigated how the application of emoji and design complexity affects social media engagement and the level of perceived visual informativeness of health information. We conducted an online experiment with a 2 (emoji: with versus without) X 2 (information design complexity: high versus low) between-subjects research. A total of 277 subjects participated in this study. Results show that, firstly, health information with emoji leads to higher social media engagement and perceived visual informativeness. Secondly, high complexity information was more convincing in terms of increasing perceived visual informativeness. Thirdly, a significant interaction effect was found on perceived visual informativeness between emoji and the design complexity of health information. In addition, visual symbols, such as emoji, are more meaningful in health information with higher design complexity than those without visual intervention or low complexity. The evidence from this study provides strategies for making visual information in health more persuasive and engaging.

Tingyi S. Lin, Yue Luo
Open Access
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Biofeedback Posture Training for Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis Patient

Scoliosis is an abnormal lateral deviation of the spine. Over 10 degrees of lateral curvature in the anteroposterior plane is already regarded as abnormal and scoliosis by the American Scoliosis Research Society. Scoliosis can be congenital, developmental, or degenerative. However, over 65% of the scoliosis cases were idiopathic. Scoliosis generally develops in the thoracic spine and/or the thoracolumbar area of the spine. One of the factors of scoliosis is the skeletal muscle around the aforementioned area of the spine. If the muscle strength between the left and right paraspinal muscles is imbalanced, internal pressure will develop and cause scoliosis. Though the risk of curve progression is the highest during puberty, adolescents with mild scoliosis (Cobb’s angle between 10 and 19) are generally closely monitored. With the increasing mobile phone usage among adolescents, it is very likely that adolescents with mild scoliosis develop poor posture during their prolonged screen time. This may affect the skeletal muscle development in the spine, causing an imbalance between the left and right paraspinal muscles, further accelerating the curve progression of scoliosis. To slow down or prevent the curve progression, biofeedback posture training has been developed by our research team. Early adolescents sat in front of a computer screen with animated videos as biofeedback to monitor their muscle activities of the paraspinal muscles. They underwent 30 sessions of biofeedback posture training, each session consisting of 3 minutes baseline assessment and 5 trials of 5-minute posture training.Currently, 18 adolescents with mild scoliosis have completed our training. 13 out 18 of them have their spine curve progressed less than 5 Cobb’s angle. In addition, 6 of them even reduced their spine curve by more than 5 Cobb's angle.

Yiu Wong, Joanne Yip, Mei-Chun Cheung
Open Access
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Conference Proceedings

5G Remote Control in Failure Situations of Transport Robots in Challenging Hospital Environments

Autonomous Mobile Robots (AMRs) continue to facilitate the work of physicians and hospital nurses by releasing those professionals from time consuming transport tasks within hospitals. Nonetheless, AMRs still often face challenges when situations occur, which result in a failure of the navigation system. In this paper, we present an analysis and an implementation of a remote-control mechanism using 5G networks to enable an operator to control an AMR, in our example within a hospital, to support an AMR in situations, where an autonomous navigation faced challenges, that cannot be solved autonomously. In detail, four major challenges are faced when implementing a remote control for failure situations – the data connection itself, the sensor data acquisition and compression, the delivery of the current robot state for a user and the controllability of the robot. For autonomous driving, the AMR is equipped with a 128-layered 3D-Lidar sensor. An RGB-D camera facilitates video feedback for the operator to navigate the AMR manually. Additionally, the point cloud of the 3D-lidar provides a detailed in-depth view of the environment, which recognizes present persons or also allows the operator to drive backwards.  To establish a connection between an AMR and a remote operator, a stable and low latency data connection is required. Since the Wi-Fi requirements of hospitals usually do not fit the requirements of remote-controlled robots regarding data security, network coverage, connection latency and bandwidth, the usage of the Wi-Fi network of hospitals is not appropriate.  These challenges can be overcome using 5G cellular network to guarantee a low latency, high bandwidth connection which is independent from the regulations and limitations of the local Wi-Fi network. Nonetheless, by selecting the cellular 5G network as the remote operation network, further challenges arise – e.g. coverage of the 5G network or the stable and secure accessibility of the robot. Since hospital building structures are complex and usually are constructed using reinforced concrete, 5G radio waves are reflected or absorbed. In addition, the bandwidth is limited, since a public cellular connection is used. Due to these limitations, data compression is required for transmitting large chunks of sensor data, such as RGB camera streams or point clouds. The RGB video compression is implemented using the H.264 codec, which again can be accelerated using hardware. The point cloud is compressed through an octree implementation. As a result, the sensor data is transmitted with low latency and less lag. Despite using data compression algorithms, which are not lossless, the quality of the sensor data, received by the operator, is still sufficient for remote control operations. For a safe and controlled remote control of an AMR using the above explained technology stack, a data connection with less to no data transfer loss is required.

Sebastian Hoose, Christian Jestel, Jan Finke, Thomas Kirks
Open Access
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Validation of a rehabilitation platform for visuomotor perceptual and cognitive stimulation

Stroke, or cerebrovascular accident, is a major global health problem and one of the leading causes of death and acquired disability worldwide. After a stroke, deficits in perceptual and cognitive functions may arise, with particular emphasis to impairments caused to visuomotor skills. In this way, its stimulation, within a therapeutic rehabilitation context, is truly relevant for the recovery of lost functions. RehabVisual, presented in earlier works, is a digital platform that allows for an objective and standardized assessment of visuomotor skills and specific clinical interventions for each patient. In the current work, new features are added to the platform, to make it more optimized and suitable for use in clinical practice, with adults who suffered a stroke. Herein the platform is also thoroughly validated with healthy subjects.Objective: This work’s goals are twofold: to assess the accuracy of the eye tracking system developed, which is integrated in the platform; and to test and validate the digital platform itself, with a population of healthy subjects.Methodology: 50 healthy subjects tested the RehabVisual digital platform in a laboratory context. In addition to testing the overall visuomotor rehabilitation functions, dynamic stimuli following was collected from both the platform’s own camera and a Tobii Pro Nano Eye Tracker, which is considered as gold standard to assess direction of gaze. The results of both systems were compared.Results: The platform’s own eye tracking apparatus revealed a good performance, in par with the gold standard, following the evolution of visual stimuli with sufficient accuracy, which ensures the suitability of its use in the context of gaze detection during rehabilitation. Conclusions: The validated gaze tracking ability, together with fact that both stimulus delivery and eye tracking is performed with the same device guarantees synchrony between both streams of data. Recorded videos of those signals allows for the design of new and personalized clinical evaluation and intervention strategies, to be applied throughout the rehabilitation program. Those may be used to complement physiotherapist’s evaluation of patients and allow for the identification of possible changes in their visuomotor skills.As an added feature, a new usability questionnaire was filled by a group of occupational therapists, which reinforced the potential use of the new version of RehabVisual, when applied to visuomotor rehabilitation of stroke patients.

Pedro Fonseca, Ricardo Vigário, Ana Teresa Videira Gabriel, Isabel L. Nunes, Carla Quintão, Cláudia Quaresma
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The use of lower limb exoskeletons to reduce load during orthopedic surgeries

During orthopedic surgeries, surgeons have to operate for long hours in a standing position, performing repetitive and/or forceful movements, and operating in sustained awkward postures, which raises the risk of work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WRMSD). Therefore, it is essential to find solutions that allow to reduce the exposure to risk factors while providing comfort, without affecting concentration during work.Lower limb exoskeletons can be considered an innovative assistance solution that helps workers perform their tasks by supporting the musculoskeletal system. Lower limb exoskeletons are wearable augmentative devices that work in concert with the user’s movements to provide physical assistance through torques or structural support. The exoskeleton moves with the user and is generally classified as an active or passive system, adding strength to the wearer. Therefore, these devices can be an opportunity to reduce muscular, joint, ligament, and bone stress at work, and potentially prevent WRMSD by physically assisting surgeons.Thus, surgical environments need to be improved to reduce the surgeon’s physical burden and enhance the quality of surgery. On that account, the main goals of this paper are: 1) to provide an overview of the risk factors related to the development of lower limb WRMSD, which are presented in orthopedic surgeries; 2) to explain how adopting lower limb exoskeletons might reduce the load experienced in the lower limbs; 3) identify current roles of existing lower limb exoskeletons; and 4) identify user needs and solutions requirements for future lower limb exoskeleton to be implemented in orthopedic surgery rooms.

Catarina Santos, Ana Teresa Videira Gabriel, Cláudia Quaresma, Isabel L. Nunes
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Conversational Agent Automation for patients after cardiothoracic surgery based on clinical team experience and behavior change theory

Cardiovascular disease is a leading cause of death and decreased quality of life. Cardiothoracic surgery provides the chance to live longer with cardiovascular disease. Proper use of clinical protocols, regular clinical evaluation, medication review, improved modifiable risk factors, psychological support, and supervised physical exercise can enhance the longer-term effects of surgery. Additionally, a healthy lifestyle can improve modifiable risk factors and enhance longevity. Despite the great effort of the clinical teams to encourage patients towards healthy habits after surgery, one year after surgery some patients need to be readmitted to the hospital due to avoidable complications. This paper presents a digital conversational agent designed to reinforce the advice about protective behaviors provided by the clinical team, contributing to improving and sustaining health outcomes during the first year after surgery.A Design Science Research Methodology was used to integrate the clinical teams' experience and knowledge, and the patients' knowledge into the final artifact. A needs assessment was conducted to identify improvement opportunities in the cardiothoracic surgery service. A systematic literature review was used to characterize the dimensions of the solutions adopted in previous research, and an interdisciplinary team was assembled to address them comprehensively. Two semi-structured interviews were conducted with the relevant stakeholders (clinical team and patients). Additionally, a survey of theories that explain patient behavior change was done to support the personalization of content delivery. Afterward, a platform to provide the intervention was developed in accordance with stakeholders' requirements.Literature review and semi-structured interviews showed that physical activity and a healthy diet influence modifiable risk factors. Thus, these were the behaviors selected as targets of the intervention digital conversational agent, which is being designed based on the behavior change wheel framework.This work intends to incorporate a Behavior Change Theory into the algorithm definition to improve the comprehension of the intervention's effects and the patient's profile over time. The iterative research approach was chosen to continuously improve the artifact's robustness, sustainability, adoption, and usability by having all the stakeholders at the center of the design process.

Ana Martins, Isabel L. Nunes, Luís Velez Lapão, Ana Londral
Open Access
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Transport and Mining Machinery Foot Controls: Safety and Human Factors View

Extremely rare research has been carried out related to the assessment of the anthropometric convenience of transport and mining machinery cabins and its human-centered design. The importance of studying this problem largely exceeds the number of published works. Despite today's the risk awareness, incidents in heavy machinery operations have not substantially decreased. Transport and mining machinery operators’ job is very demanding since high precision is needed and they remain in cabins during almost the whole shift. Inadequate shape and dimensions of control devices, their inadequate arrangement in the cabin, as well as mismatch of the forces required to activate the control devices with the anthropometric characteristics of the operator, have an impact on the quality of the performance of the work task and overall safety. Foot controls are of special importance, so aim of this paper was to examine and compare transport and mining machinery operators’ height and weight and foot controls ergonomics convenience. Samples of 31 transport machinery and 65 mining machinery operators working in Serbian and Montengrin companies were examined. Descriptive statistics included sample sizes, mean values, median, minimum and maximum, range, standard deviation and coefficient of variation expressed in percentages. In cases when the coefficient of variation is greater than 30%, the variable is inhomogeneous, thus non-parametric statistics is used. Otherwise, the Kolmogorov test for normality was additionally conducted, where the d test values and p values for the Kolmogorov test were given. Comparison of operators’ height and weight have not shown differences found between transport and mining machinery. Descriptive statistics regarding vibrations feeling through the foot controls and its easiness to be reached and used/controlled of both transport and mining machinery has been done and although slightly lower values are obtained from mining machinery operators, statistically significant differences have not been found, too. The last data that was compared between operators of transport and mining machinery are injuries at work, for which proportions were used, where it was shown that 16,129% of operators of transport machinery had injuries, while that number among operators of mining machinery was 13,846%. The comparison again showed that this difference is not statistically significant, given that the p-level of the test is 0.7205. Later on, failures and stoppages of both types of machinery are collected and analyzed and Pareto diagrams are given, where completely different causes are evident in the field of “vital few” causes. Anyhow, since statistically proved facts show that there are no differences regarding safety and human factors issues it could be indicated to designers that there is the possibility of applying the same innovative solutions to both types of mechanization in the field of foot controls. Further collection and analysis of anthropometric dimensions is recommended as future research avenue.

Vesna Spasojevic Brkic, Aleksandar Brkic, Martina Perisic, Zorica Veljkovic
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Construction of commander's visual model under long-term voyage

Long-term voyage ships have the characteristics of isolation and airtightness, 24-hour continuous duty, and being far away from the coastline. The long-term voyage state will have an impact on the visual ability of the commander, which in turn will have an impact on the cognitive performance in the process of human-computer interaction. As a result, the human-computer interaction tasks that can be completed under normal circumstances may not be completed under long-term voyage state. The existing researches have insufficient description of visual model under long-term voyage status. Therefore, based on the original EMMA visual model, this paper designs a visual parameter collection experiment under the 90-day long-term voyage state, selects 8 subjects for data collection of eye movement preparation time and eye movement saccade speed, constructs a commander's visual model under 90-day long-term voyage and analyses the reasons for the changes in the commander's visual parameters.

Ning Li
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Tourist Recommendation Systems: solving mobility in a private vehicle with support for parking

At present, tourists have all the facilities to travel, but they face the difficulty of establishing the itineraries of visits and the routes to follow, the reason is the numerous attractions and the complexity of the Metropolitan cities, Gavalas [1] .In previous works by this author, algorithms for the generation of intelligent itineraries have been published. Likewise, surveys carried out with end users have clarified some additional requirements, which were observed as future work. One of them is the requirement to search for parking spaces when the tourist moves by vehicle from the place where he is located. and when you need it.The tourist can move in a city on foot, or can hire a private vehicle and a third option, move through the Metropoli-tano transit network. But, when a user hires a vehicle, they have the question of whether it will be easy to find parking spaces and how to get to each one of them in the city, which is unknown to tourists in itself, in addition to the fact that the search of parking affects the en-vironment, and therefore affects the tourist due to the additional use of fuel and wasted time.In this document, the solution to the problem of finding parking lots from any place where the user is, the routes to get to each one of them, identifying infor-mation about the parking lot, if it is open and if there are spaces available, will be presented. The solution to this problem is of public interest and we differ from other researchers in that we include the option of identifying empty spaces in nearby parking lots, this information is presented in real time, the study is carried out in a specific city.To solve the problem, a tourist recommendation system will be presented that will include a preliminary study of the interests of that user from comments and reactions on tourist images published on the Facebook network, which will be subjected to sentiment analysis, to characterize the interest or not.Once the user's interests are identified, and in order to enrich the itinerary, the best POIs with tourist value in the city, evaluated by other users, are offered in the geographical area where the user is located.The presentation of the routes and itineraries will be done on a two-dimensional map, you can choose routes on foot or by vehicle. In addition, if the user de-cides to stop anywhere, they will have the option to identify parking spaces and how to get to them.Finally, an experiment will be carried out with end users, to measure both the ease of use and the utility of the proposal. As future work, the option of park-ing reservations in real time will be included. Another job that is related is mo-bility through the Metropolitan transportation system in a specific city. [1]Gavalas, D., Kasapakis, V., Konstantopoulos, C., Pantziou, G., Vathis, N., & Zaroliagis, C. (2015). The eCOMPASS multi-modal tourist tour planner. Expert systems with Applica-tions, 42(21), 7303-7316.

Maritzol Tenemaza, Roger Laza, Jonathan Vargas, Sergio Luján-Mora
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Conference Proceedings

Comparative analysis of Air France 447 (2009) and Costa Concordia (2012) using FRAM: how organizational culture influences cockpit/bridge decisions

In the night of June 1st, 2009, the Airbus A330 of the Air France Flight AF 447, on the route between Rio de Janeiro (Brazil) and Paris (France), after a series of events, lost altitude and fell into the Atlantic Ocean, leaving no survivors. Few years after this event, in the coast of the Mediterranean Sea, on January 13th, 2012, a cruise vessel named Costa Concordia struck a rock formation on the sea floor, listing and capsizing the vessel, leaving 32 fatalities and dozens of wounded. Two accidents apart in time and space, in different domains - aviation and maritime - but which have more similarities than differences. In this study, a systematic analysis of these two accidents with the FRAM (Functional Resonance Analysis Method) is presented, based on the two official reports issued by the responsible authorities, as well as relevant scientific publications about these events. Applying a Human Factors approach, where work systems are analysed from worker’s perspective, understanding the interactions between organizational, technological, environmental, and individual elements, it was possible to comprehend and identify how the organizational decisions, taken in the executive offices, and company’s culture, resonate till the cockpit/bridge decisions. Particularly in these events, it was perceived that this resonance contributed to the accidents, evidencing the real complexity of the workplaces in the aeronautical and maritime industries, where actions, decisions and relationships reverberate (complexly) throughout the system. In this aspect, it was also noted that the levels of complexity of these two distinct domains, despite being structurally different, require the same adaptive and regenerative responses from work systems and, consequently, from workers, generating the organizational culture of work environments.

Josue Franca, Erik Hollnagel
Open Access
Article
Conference Proceedings

Model-based human-machine interaction design of civil aircraft cockpit

As aircraft systems become more complex, the cross-links between systems become more and more inseparable. The failure of certain faults can lead to a cascade of failure effects. In order for the crew to quickly locate the fault, quickly isolate the fault in the shortest possible time, and eliminate the impact of the failure, it is necessary to consider the cockpit human-machine interaction design comprehensively. At present, designers mostly analyze the impact of failure based on design documents, and the work is complicated and prone to omissions and errors. Therefore, this paper proposes a model-based human-computer interaction design method for civil aircraft cockpit to help designers quickly conduct cross-system impact analysis, so as to make the design more effective and correct.The overall architecture of the model adopted by the model-based civil aircraft cockpit human-computer interaction design method is mainly divided into the failure state layer, the system function layer and the physical component layer. The failure state layer mainly describes the different failure states of each function of the system, and the correlation between the failure state and the alarm information of the unit. The system functional layer mainly describes the functions of the system and their internal associations, in addition, the functional cross-linking relationships between different systems are also described at this layer. The physical component layer mainly describes the physical components and related physical architecture required for the realization of each function of the system, and correlates the control points and crew alert information that can be controlled by the crew.Since the spread of failure will lead to many alert messages, if the primary message is displayed at the same time as the secondary message, it will be difficult for the crew to quickly determine the true root cause fault and take appropriate countermeasures. Therefore, when designing the crew alert, the designer can analyze the failure propagation through the model, comprehensively consider the cockpit crew alert effect, and avoid excessive alert information and interference with the flight crew.In order to ensure the flight safety of the aircraft, various control devices are designed in the cockpit, which provide a channel for the interaction between the crew and the aircraft system, and facilitate the pilot to adjust the operating state of the aircraft system. When designing the control points, the rationality and effectiveness of the setting of the control points of the crew can be analyzed through the model, so as to reduce the impact of failure as much as possible and avoid excessive load on the crew.Model-based human-computer interaction design method for civil aircraft cockpit takes system functions as the core, supports failure states and physical components, and correlates crew alarm information and control points. This approach can help designers quickly perform cross-system impact analysis, and provide a reference for the design of civil aircraft cockpit crew alarm and control points.

Zuo Pianpian, Jiang Jun
Open Access
Article
Conference Proceedings

Civil aircraft crew alarm ranking method

Cockpit crew alerts are primarily used to draw the attention of flight crews to be aware of failures, malfunctions, abnormal states or unexpected state changes in aircraft and aircraft systems. After the 80s of the 20th century, the design of the cockpit crew alert system has made great progress, which can integrate vision, hearing and touch to more effectively provide alerts for the flight crew. New technology applications also bring new challenges and difficulties. As aircraft systems become more complex, so do the number and form of crew alerts. How to quickly locate the most urgent and prioritized faults when multiple faults exist at the same time has become an urgent problem to be solved.In this paper, the sequencing method of crew alerts in the cockpit of civil aircraft is studied, and a method for crew alert priority evaluation is proposed. In this method, a set of crew alert priority evaluation index system is first established and each index scoring standard is given, and then the weight of different indicators is determined by the Precedence Chart to form a multi-index comprehensive evaluation model, and then the crew alarm is evaluated one by one to form a crew alarm ranking list.When establishing the priority evaluation index system, first of all, from the aspects of crew alert awareness and urgency of crew operation, "Impact on aircraft status", "Impact on crew", "Impact on passengers" and "Eventual risk without crew reaction" are selected as the indices. Then, from the aspects of fault impact, crew operation content and fault isolation after crew operation, "Affected system", "Function loss" and "Consequence on aircraft after crew action" are selected as the supplementary indicators; Finally, a set of crew alert priority evaluation index system is formed by combining the two aspects.When formulating the scoring standards for each indicator, according to the content of each indicator, combined with subjective evaluation and objective data, the scoring standard is formed, such as loss of function, different scores can be given according to complete loss, loss of one-third, loss of half, etc.When determining the weights of different indicators, the importance of each index in the flight crew when performing flight tasks is comprehensively weighed by the scoring of flight crews and flight experts. After analyzing the crew alerts one by one, the index score and weight can be superimposed to obtain a comprehensive score, and the crew alert ranking list can be obtained through the comprehensive score.The crew alert sequencing method proposed in this paper can help the flight crew quickly locate the fault that needs to be solved first when multiple faults exist at the same time, so as to effectively reduce the cognitive load of the pilot, improve the operational efficiency, ensure flight safety, and provide a new thinking for the cockpit crew alert sequencing of civil aircraft.

Zuo Pianpian, Zhu Zhongbin, Hongyu Zhu, Lingchen Zhou
Open Access
Article
Conference Proceedings

School Bus System Redesign Based on Ergonomics Principles - The example of Huazhong University of Science and Technology

The optimization design of the school bus system of Huazhong University of Science and Technology, based on ergonomics, is proposed to adapt to the wave of intelligent development in the information era and enhance safety, efficiency, and comfort. In this design, questionnaire interview, literature search and competition product analysis are used to deeply understand the pain points of the current situation, the development status of public transport system and references of school bus user groups and so on, which determined the school bus system’s function design, the CMF design, the product technology and the modelling key point. This design used Global Positioning System, smart touch screen and other technologies, as well as combined the knowledge of ergonomics and perceptual engineering. After the usability test of the product, the school bus user groups thought that the design had a certain effect.

Sijia Wang, Xu Qian
Open Access
Article
Conference Proceedings

Unified Vision-series of military exercise - the methodological struggles in conducting evaluation of Human Factors and Systems Interaction

The complexity and practical constraints of sociotechnical systems demand that researchers develop better understanding and methods for testing and providing input on critical Human Factor (HF) and Systems Interaction problems. This article takes a concrete approach to this problem describing the NATO HFM-276 Task Group methodological struggles in conducting evaluation of a military exercise. To analyze the duality; theory and practice, in the area an overall Socio-Technical Multiteam (STM) model was used to identify critical Human Factors (HF) and Systems Interaction in order to survey the gap between simulation and best practice. The Systems Interaction and the methodological struggles in conducting the evaluation of HF and Systems Interaction One dilemma that occurs in these events is the one between being a training arena for military units and operational versus being an arena for operational testing of systems and new capabilities, may lead to some challenges for HF methods. This speaks to the aspect of multiplicity and uncertainty. The behavior of the distributed cooperative systems and operators during the preparation phase and execution are made up of multiple, highly interconnected individuals who influence one another formally and informally. A particular aspect of the UV exercises is the ongoing modifications of systems (e.g., Command and control systems and information systems) and their use during the trial itself. Operators and Supervisors are to analyze data seeking to identify targets across Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance (ISR) operations. Evaluating these operations included Human Factors and Systems Interaction (pre- and post-exercise) surveys, observational, archival, and document study. We discuss the utility of these methods using recent work in the HF and ergonomics literature on how to match HF methods to core aspects of the complexity of sociotechnical systems. We also discuss how the methods used could capture complexity, and how to improve HF evaluations of training and test practices in the military and other field settings taking into account some aspects of the complexity of ISR operations. The example of mapping organizational structure using a problem space, as well as experimental designs could be avenues for accommodating complexity in future HF evaluations of military exercises.

Rune Stensrud, Sigmund Valaker, Torgar Haugen
Open Access
Article
Conference Proceedings

Negative Capability: A Human Factor of Resilience for Crisis Management and a Valuable Training and Intervention Objective

In the field of crisis management, negative capability can be understood as an individual’s or team’s ability to tolerate and accept challenging and confusing situations and search for meaning and means of action despite a high degree of indeterminacy. In this paper, we develop the conceptual, empirical and practical value of negative capability in the field of individual and team resilience in crisis management. Conceptually, its interest is to distill and define the human capacity to act when faced with the unknown. Empirically, this concept offers new analytical possibilities, as exemplified through a case study conducted during a COVID-19 pandemic peak. Practically, we argue that developing negative capability can be a relevant objective for crisis management preparedness, and provide tentative orientations for the design of training interventions that focus on human factors. We conclude with suggestions for further research.

Simon Flandin, Olivia Scannell, Elleke Ketelaars, Germain Poizat
Open Access
Article
Conference Proceedings

Logistics future trends and their transformative impact

Autonomous vehicles, Artificial Intelligence (AI), IoT, drones, 3D Printing, green fuels or sustainable practices are presented as the Holy Grail for the logistics of the future. But, what are the implications of their adoption in people’s lives and in the society?The dynamism of knowledge creation and the adoption of new methodologies and technologies are increasing. Contrary to what happened in the past, there are no longer periods of stability after the emergence of new technologies, preventing societies to smoothly adapt to the new reality. Periods of change and uncertainty usually end up affecting people’s living conditions - e.g. the early days of the industrial revolution. Thus, it will be relevant to identify the new trends in logistics and their impacts on people. Anticipating potential problems, allows for mitigating measures.More agile organizations represents a competitive advantage in responding to environments of uncertainty and greater customer customization requirement, but may imply less job stability, making people nomadic. The globalization of markets and the existence of even longer supply chains, dependent on effective and efficient transportation and communication technologies, increase the risk of supply disruption being exposed both to natural and anthropogenic causes (such as ideological, cultural or resource conflicts), with economic and social consequences. Recent examples are the COVID-19 Pandemics, the cyberattack to Maersk shipping company, the grounding of the Evergreen container, in the Suez Canal, in 2021, or the current war in Ukraine. On the other hand, technological evolution has increased the automation and autonomy of systems and boosted the reduction of human involvement. The development of AI and IoT allows, among other impacts, the use of drones to perform last mile deliveries or the existence of autonomous vehicles, being ships, planes or trucks, to carry out long-haul transport. Their adoption allows cost reduction, but also anticipates the reduction of jobs. It is recognized that new technologies themselves create new jobs; but the pertinent doubt is if they will compensate for the lost jobs? The existence of more sustainable activities (e.g., environmentally friendly), while respecting ethical and social principles, brings better living conditions for current and future generations. However, it can be conflicting with the existing long supply chains or imply lower process efficiency, leading to increased costs for customers.The aim of this work is to systematize the main future trends in logistics, assessing possible impacts that these trends can have on the daily life of individuals and society. To achieve this objective, a literature review will be carried out and the opinion of professionals will be surveyed. The expected contributions of this work are to systemize of the main logistics’ future trends and helping to anticipate the human factor consequences arising from its adoption. As a result of this work, subsequent mitigating measures to avoid negative impacts on people’s lives and society can be identify, leading to a smoother and more sustainable change process, in line with the principles of green and circular economy, and the targets of UN SDG.

Armindo Frias, Mario Simões-Marques, Pedro Água, Anacleto Correia
Open Access
Article
Conference Proceedings

Metaverse and Digital Twins: contributions, opportunities and challenges to a sustainable use of the ocean

Human activity often negatively affects the ocean and their livelihoods, with overexploited fisheries, marine pollution, plastic litter, or acidification. The importance of sustainable use of the ocean is recognized under United Nations’ SDG 14, which focused on ocean habitats. Dealing with the challenges facing the ocean and their use requires ocean-related stakeholders to make informed decisions, often complex, due to the cross-domain nature of the issues and the still quite limited amount of knowledge and tools available for such a decision-making process. This article discusses a conceptual framework addressing the contributions and challenges that a Digital Twin Ocean, as a key element of the Metaverse, faces or presents to sustainable ocean use, in support of its stakeholders.

Mario Simões-Marques, Pedro Água, Armindo Frias, Anacleto Correia
Open Access
Article
Conference Proceedings

Security and privacy for interoperable organizations

There are organizations for whom interoperability is crucial for the accomplishment of their mission, such as in the areas of disaster management, security, and defense. However, those organizations also must comply with the constraints and rules for information security and privacy. The ISO 27001 provides a global standard framework to help organizations to protect their information in a systematic way, through the adoption of an information security management system. Furthermore, the ISO 27701, provides specific data privacy controls, allowing the organization to demonstrate effective privacy data management. A challenge organizations face is how to comply with information security and privacy policies and procedures together with the accomplishment of their mission. In this paper, we argue this can be achieved with an Enterprise Architecture (EA) framework. Particularly, the NATO Architecture Framework (NAF) provides a methodology to develop EA artifacts, however it lacks the tools amenable to enforce information security and privacy. In this paper, we propose the integration of ISO 27001 and ISO 27701 in NAF, in order that the EA artifacts delivered by NAF framework, could have embedded the information security and privacy principles by design.

Anacleto Correia, Pedro Água, Armindo Frias, Mario Simões-Marques
Open Access
Article
Conference Proceedings

The impact of cultural diversity on organizational and operational risk levels

The blue economy develops in a multicultural environment, posing an additional risk for the organizations involved. Operations at sea where people are involved, be it in ships or offshore infrastructures, are not free from operational risks, affecting safety of on board operations for example. Moreover, international projects and operations pursued by multinational organizations (such as UN, EU or NATO), have the potential for the risk levels to increase as a result of a particular aspect of human factor – cultural diversity. Crises response and peace operations, for instance, force teaming up people not only with different cultural backgrounds among themselves, but additionally make such teams interface with local populations whose culture is usually much different from theirs. Not being aware of the cultural differences of the involved people may lead to increased misunderstandings, unnecessary controversies, increased risks and avoidable accidents. Conflicts originate from different mental models of the world, which are developed as a consequence of the growing experience – not only within a specific social context, but also national one. Therefore, when people with different backgrounds are gathered as part of a multinational effort, the potential for misaligned perceptions and conflicts arise, and consequently organizational and operational increased risk levels.Several distinct models and frameworks exist to bring understanding over intercultural management; however, there’s barely any established taxonomy or standard model which one could refer to in order to master any situation. Among the main frameworks, we have the ones from Hall, Trompenaars, Hofstede. The purpose of this paper is to bring some clarity, and if possible order, contributing to establish a general framework as a result of the integration, or blending, of the main different ones, and as such provide guidance for professionals who have to face risks in their respective fields of work as a result of the impact of different multicultural settings. Even if the writing of this paper was done with the maritime industry in mind, which is perhaps the oldest multicultural industry in the world, the attained results and practical implications will spill over the purely maritime operations and extend their application into most multinational systems’ endeavours – be it within the business, NGO or security contexts.The methods used comprise the analysis and comparison of the main culture models and associated frameworks, clarifying where such models superimpose each other and where they are complementary. Once they are understood, it will be possible to think in terms of cause and effect and design useful procedures to support the people on the fields, hence contributing to an improved human factor paradigm in what intercultural interactions concern.The expected outcome will be a clearer and tentatively universal model – a proposed taxonomy - which may help to address, manage and keep risks derived from multicultural interactions under control, so their organizational risk level doesn’t arise as a result of such endeavours.Finally, and guided by the principle of usefulness, some practical implications will be presented and discussed; and a summary of suggested actions, followed by some conclusions.

Pedro Água, Armindo Frias, Anacleto Correia, Mario Simões-Marques
Open Access
Article
Conference Proceedings

Correlation between Dominant Sensory Mechanisms during Interaction Processes with Virtual Products and Human Interaction Cycles

Through the exploration of Human Behavior with the use of networks as well as the Tetrachoric Coefficient (TC), it was sought the relationship between the active Dominant Sensory Mechanisms (DSM) during the interaction processes with 3 Virtual Products in 3 groups of users., and the Human Interaction Cycles (HIC) performed by each user. The DSM of each user was obtained from the number of repetitions of each Sensory Mechanism (SM) registered in each network. Likewise, the HICs were determined based on the attention of the person in a certain factor of the Virtual Product (VP), its breakage was considered the end of the attentional process and the number of breaks of each attentional process was counted like a cycle. The results obtained suggest the existence of a varied dependency in the dichotomy: Dominant Sensory Mechanisms and the cycles of human interaction executed in each Virtual Product. Likewise, the results obtained from the Tetrachoric Coefficient (TC) show a directly proportional relationship between the DSM and the HIC in the first two groups of users. However, the results show an inversely proportional relationship in the third group of users. Likewise, the second and third User Groups were the ones that showed the greatest relationship between the DSM and the HICs. In this sense, the results of the second group of users show that the greater the dominance of DSM, the greater the HIC. In the case of the third group of users, it was shown that the greater the DSM, the lower the HIC.

Lorena Olmos Pineda, Jorge Gil Tejeda
Open Access
Article
Conference Proceedings

Correlation between Dominant Sensory Mechanisms during Interaction Processes with Virtual Products and Gender

Through the exploration of Human Behavior with the use of networks as well as the Tetrachoric Coefficient (TC) it was sought the relationship between the active Dominant Sensory Mechanisms (DSM) during the interaction processes with 3 Virtual Products (VP) in 3 groups of users., and the gender of the persons like users. The DSM of each user was obtained from the number of repetitions of the SM observed in networks. In this sense, attention was focused on the Women's sector (W). The results obtained suggest the existence of a low dependence in the dichotomy: Dominant Sensory Mechanisms and the Women's sector. Likewise, the results obtained from the Tetrachoric Coefficient (TC) show a directly proportional relationship between the activation of the DSM and gender. In this sense, the results show that the higher the DSM, the greater the probability of the presence of interaction in the women's sector, and the lower the domain of a DSM and the less dominance of an DSM, the less probability of interaction in the women's sector. This was perceived in the 3 groups of users considering mixed groups. Therefore, a possible relationship between the activation of sensory mechanisms and the gender is appreciated.

Jorge Gil Tejeda, Lorena Olmos Pineda
Open Access
Article
Conference Proceedings

Defining optimal lifting loads using augmented reality and internet of things

The design of the optimal workplace is still a task of the highest relevance for an ergonomist, the fact that the workplace adapts to the operator and not the operator to the workplace is a task that can take a long time. and this means that many companies do not want to invest that time in such a task and end up with a version of the workplace that is less than optimal.The time that this task takes includes activities such as the design of the place and the design of the environment, for which each of these tasks requires observations, taking photos, videos, and the consequent analysis to define aspects such as lighting, noise, vibration, temperature, ventilation, processes, optimal lifting loads, heights, widths, distances, etc.In terms of time, we would be talking about weeks and perhaps months to be able to complete the design of a workstation, hence the importance of making the said design as efficient as possible in terms of time.In this paper, we will present how the use of technologies such as augmented reality and the Internet of things can help optimize the design of a workstation by minimizing the time for defining the optimal load to be handled by an operator.Early results give us the opportunity to comment that the application of such technologies really minimizes time without sacrificing the accuracy of the measurements.

Jorge A. González Mendívil, Miguel X. Rodríguez-Paz, Eduardo Caballero-Montes, Israel Zamora-Hernandez
Open Access
Article
Conference Proceedings

A discovery on creativity delivery tools – from the needs of hybrid-using 3D modeling software

Hybrid using 3D model-building software is a popular situation in product design to delivery creative ideas. Less research on challenges and expected functions in hybrid-use modeling software triggers this study which aims to gather an in-depth understanding of the hybrid-use modeling software user experience. Semi-structured interviews were used to report the using experience. The paper analyses the interview from intelligence, expected function, hybrid using experience, and expected software. It shows that participants expect automatically saving and recording process functions. Also, the traditional modeling building software has high developing potential on shortcut key plug-in. Suggestions were promoted to make more effective modeling software. This research is a former step to inspire thinking on how to improve the collaboration among different 3D modeling software.

Yuan Yin
Open Access
Article
Conference Proceedings

Determination of Most Effective Medium for E-Learning by Analyzing the Differences in Various Types of Media

The COVID-19 pandemic has increased the demand for e-learning and video-on-demand services in education. Several methods of imparting education through on-demand videos exist based on the content and method of delivery. However, the most effective medium has not been identified conclusively. In this study, we explored the effectiveness of six different presentation patterns: the simple display of materials, materials-and-narration, use of animated avatars, use of realistic-humanoid avatars, and presentation in the metaverse (using standard computer monitors and head-mounted displays). Sixty subjects, ten males and ten females, from each of the young, middle-aged, and senior age groups participated in the experiment conducted in Dec. 2022. Each subject performed three different tasks, and subjective evaluations were conducted using questionnaires.

Jun Iio, Kenta Kawamoto, Tatsuya Sashizawa, Kumiko Nakai
Open Access
Article
Conference Proceedings

The Usage of 3D Building Information Management (BIM) and Digital Twin Models to Support the Management of Human Factors Integration Issues

3D Building Information Management (BIM) and digital twin models are a growing trend in the construction industry. It provides numerous benefits, such as improved collaboration, visualisation, and accuracy. In recent years, there has been a growing interest in using these technologies to support identifying and managing human factors integration (HFI) issues.HFI is a critical aspect of construction project management as it involves integrating human factors, such as physical and mental capabilities, into the design and construction of buildings. Integrating HFI considerations helps ensure the safety, health, and well-being of construction workers and occupants of the building. However, managing HFI issues can be a complex and time-consuming task.3D BIM and digital twin models allow for the creation of detailed, accurate, and interactive representations of the building and its components. This enables stakeholders to visualise the HFI issues in the building and assess their potential impacts on the construction workers and occupants. The digital twin model can also be used to simulate different scenarios and evaluate the possible effects of HFI issues on the building's performance.Furthermore, using 3D BIM and digital twin models enables the integration of HFI considerations into the design and construction process. This permits the identification and resolution of HFI issues at an early stage, reducing the risk of costly delays and rework. These technologies also facilitate collaboration among stakeholders, improving communication and coordination.Overall, 3D BIM and digital twin models offer a powerful tool for identifying and managing HFI issues in construction projects. It enables stakeholders to visualise HFI issues and evaluate their potential impacts, facilitating the integration of HFI considerations into the design and construction process and ultimately helping to ensure the safety, health, and well-being of construction workers and building occupants.

Chris Lowe, Neil Hall
Open Access
Article
Conference Proceedings

Human Errors in Helicopter Maintenance: overview of recommendations for improving safety

The maintenance is defined as the second cause of aviation incidents or accidents. Indeed, 12% of all aviation accidents were due to human factors/ergonomics (HFE) issues during maintenance activity (Hobbs, 2000). However, regarding the aviation history, Human performance has been studied from the very beginning in the aviation field, especially regarding fixed wing accidents (Maurino et al., 1993; Wiener & Nagel, 1988). Initially, the reliability of machines was the primary concern, and many attempts were made to improve the technology of the devices (Maurino et al., 1993; Wiener & Nagel, 1988). During the following decades, HFE raised as a discipline to design the flight deck and to investigate the interaction between human (pilot) and machine, particularly, during the training phase of the pilot in a simulator (Wiener & Nagel, 1988; Horeman et al., 2015). Safety and comfort in the cockpit and the passenger cabin were also improved by considering HFE principles during the subsequent decades (Spenser, 2008). The consideration of Human Factors in maintenance is more recent. Integrating HFE in maintainability increases the quality of maintenance activities and reduces the rate of mistakes/errors (Gruber et al., 2015). The design engineers in the maintainability department interact and collaborate with other engineering departments (e.g., aerodynamic, hydraulic and electric integration, and architecture) and support disciplines including aircraft maintenance manual to consider maintenance & HF criteria during design phases. This interaction could raise HFE culture between them could effectively affect the future maintenance activity. However, aviation accidents are not the only problem that demonstrates the need to improve HFE for maintenance activities. The health and safety of maintenance operators is also a key contributor to maintenance errors (Hobbs, 2000). Various studies have already highlighted the fact that maintenance activities can cause health problems (musculoskeletal disorders, stress, and high mental workload) and workplace accidents (AFIM, 2004; European Agency for Safety and Health at Work, 2010). In a survey of 2,500 maintenance operators from various industries (automotive, train, and aeronautics), AFIM showed that 62% of respondents considered their occupation to be dangerous. Another study performed in Europe showed that 15%–20% of accidents at work occurred in the field of maintenance, suggesting that maintenance tasks are the most dangerous activities in an industry (European Agency for Safety and Health at Work, 2010).In order to reduce the risk of error, and also improve the work condition of maintenance operator, one of the solution is to better understand the current feedback of customer’s daily activity. Airbus Helicopters has launched a huge campaign of preventive Human Factors analysis. In this frame, the most sensitive maintenance tasks on existing helicopters have been studied to impact the design, procedure, maintenance tools and training. These maintenance tasks mainly concern sensitive mechanical system (Main Rotors, Main Rotor Drives, Tail Rotor, Tail Rotor Drives and Rotor Flight Control) regrouping lots of critical parts. In this article, we will first present a brief background of Human Factors in aviation maintainability. Then we will describe the methodologies and tools used to assess Human Factors dimensions during the observation of sensitive maintenance tasks. Additionally, we will introduce the main results and outcomes of all this analysis, all tasks and helicopters combined. We will provide some safety recommendations and improvement in the design & maintenance procedure for future development, mainly by highlighting six categories (Work at Height, Foreign Object Damages, Incorrect assembly, Number of Operators requested to perform the maintenance task, Damage prevention, Damage identification).

Fabien Bernard, Raphael Paquin, Kévin Dos-Santos
Open Access
Article
Conference Proceedings

Single-file movement experiments of male under the influence of rhythm

Reducing congestion to ensure people's safety has been widely concerned. Rhythm may be a potential way to adjust pedestrian flow. Considering that different gender groups may have different responses to rhythm, this study mainly conducted a series of single-file experiments on the effects of rhythm on male behavior. The distribution of speed mostly conform to a Gaussian distribution in different runs. The stop-and-go phenomenon appears when the density is beyond 1.35 ped/m. As the density increases, the frequency of long stop time becomes higher. The fundamental diagrams with rhythm are obtained. The boundary density between the free and constrained phases is 0.5 ped/m. When the density is 1 ped/m, the maximum flow rate 0.8 ped/s is reached. Meanwhile, the relationship between headway and individual velocity is fitted piecewise and two stages can be found. The findings can help to understand the movement characteristics of male under rhythmic influence.

Maoyu Li, Lizhong Yang, Ping Zhang, Nan Jiang, Xinmiao Jia, Hanchen Yu
Open Access
Article
Conference Proceedings

Trajectory-based Optimization of Safety and Process Efficiency in Human-Robot Collaboration

The interaction between humans and robots in industrial applications of human-robot collaboration has so far been determined almost exclusively by technically oriented machine programmers and operators. The task allocation and especially the programmed trajectories of the robot are regularly subordinated to technical aspects, mental or cognitive demands of the human are usually not considered. The aim of this research is the investigation and optimization of robot movements considering cognitive and ergonomic aspects. The stress on humans caused by the workstation is to be reduced and the safety in the not harmless collision scenario is to be increased.

Sumona Sen, Hans Juergen Buxbaum
Open Access
Article
Conference Proceedings

Ergonomic work analysis in the production of interiors for the transport industry

Musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) are the most frequent occupational health problem in the European Union where they have physical and economic consequences for workers, their families, companies, and the government. According to the European Agency for Safety and Health at Work (EU-OSHA), MSDs seem to be prevalent in construction, mining, and industry. These injuries are frequent in work situations where there is exposure to work activity risk factors, such as: standing posture for long periods of time, awkward joint postures (e.g., bending and twisting), repetitive movements, application of hand and finger force, exposure to vibrations and cold, manual handling of loads or no recovery periods between tasks. In this study, an Ergonomic Work Analysis (EWA) was carried out to understand the working conditions of workers at the MCG transportation factory unit, making part of metalworking industry, in Portugal. The objectives of the study were: the characterization of the metalworking industry regarding the risk of developing MSDs, the characterization of musculoskeletal symptoms self-reported by workers, the identification of the most problematic risk factors concerning each task assessed and, finally, the definition of an action plan to solve the identified problems. To characterize the tasks and workers, several methods/techniques were used, namely, free/systematized observations, non-structured interviews with workers, image/video recording and a questionnaire (adapted from the Nordic Musculoskeletal Questionnaire) specifically developed for this purpose. To assess and quantify the risk of developing MSDs, different methods, such as Rapid Entire Body Assessment (REBA), Rapid Upper-Limb Assessment (RULA), Revised NIOSH lifting equation, Revised Strain Index), ACGIH Hand Activity Level and the 2D Biomechanics, were used, to accommodate the specificities of each task. For data processing the SPSS© software was used and descriptive analyses were performed using measures of location and dispersion. The Chi-square test and Cramer’s V coefficient were used to assess associations between variables (demographic/work-related characteristics) and reported MSD symptoms. A significance level of 0.05 was adopted as a criterion to reject the null hypothesis. For the application of the above-mentioned methods the ErgoWeb EnterpriseTM software was used. All workers (N=18) agreed to participate in the study and the privacy of each participant was respected. Ten tasks were analyzed and assessed. Overall, the body regions with the highest percentage of complains were lower back (83,3%), neck (50%), upper limbs (hand/fist (50%) and shoulders (44,5%)). The results obtained corroborated data obtained from several studies. There was a positive association between work demands and complaints of pain in various body regions. Considering the postural assessment methods, all tasks presented a risk of developing musculoskeletal injuries (Risk level > 2). Through the application of the method of evaluating the physical demands associated with the tasks of manual handling of loads, it was verified that the weight of the loads is above the recommended, and therefore, the tasks presented a risk of developing injuries at the level of the lumbar spine (IL > 1). All these results show that investigations and measures to improve working conditions must be carried out.

Ana Clemente, Filipa Carvalho
Open Access
Article
Conference Proceedings