Training, Education, and Learning Sciences

book-cover

Editors: Salman Nazir

Topics: Training, Education, and Learning Sciences

Publication Date: 2022

ISBN: 978-1-958651-35-3

DOI: 10.54941/ahfe1002376

Articles

Student motivation in the teaching process during the Covid 19, an experience of the international exchange for the learning of control charts

COVID-19 has generated changes in education systems that impact the main authors of the system: teachers and students. As an alternative, most of the university courses have been taught remotely (IESALC 2020). Using the contribution of industrial engineering teachers from the universities involved, opportunities are evident to strengthen the teaching-learning processes that were incorporated in the design of the process, since the academic motivation of the students depends to a large extent on the perceptions in relation to their experiences in class (Jones, 2015). Additionally, there are multiple learning options in open pedagogical practices (Paviotti et al 2020), and in open educational practices (Ehlers et al 2020), (Axe et al 2020), (Marchisio et al 2020), which corresponds to innovative and attractive pedagogies that incorporate open evaluation, open collaboration and in itself open teaching processes.Considering the concepts of open education, added to the international exchange policies of the universities: Universidad Austral de Chile and Universidad Tecnológica de Pereira, an experience international exchange is planned for control graphics students, incorporating pedagogical strategies with a pragmatic approach in the solution of international cases of control charts and where collaborative work between academic peers complement the academic experience.The objective of the research was to analyze the motivational beliefs of the students at the level of the control graph domain, using the “Expectations Value Model” (Eccles and Wigfield 2000), compared to two moments: the one before the academic exchange and after the same, in which pragmatic approaches are incorporated in the applications of statistical control, taking advantage of internationalization scenarios. Therefore, the purpose of the research is to determine if there are statistically significant differences in the beliefs of the students of the statistical control analyzed at the beginning and at the end of the academic exchange of the 2021 semester.The present study is an inferential statistical investigation on academic motivation in students of statistical process control, in remote exchange learning. For this reason, it was decided to use the two-sample hypothesis test for dependent samples suggested by (Lind et al 2019) and (Anderson et al 2020), an initial hypothesis was defined: the mean assessment of motivation after the international exchange should be superior to the initial evaluation of the control chart students.The results of the statistical analysis carried out confirm the initial general hypothesis raised and verify that the change in the didactic strategy in international exchange after COVID-19 has a significant influence on the motivational beliefs of the students, where the factors of academic motivation with better evolution after the academic exchange are in hierarchical order: utility value, followed by achievement value, closing with satisfaction value. As for the elements that were better valued and with greater evolution at the initial moment for the utility is having a solid formation in process control, and for the achievement, it is to carry out the graphic activities well; while for satisfaction or interest, the one with the highest value is the expectation of believing in what will be done well with the knowledge acquired, but the element with the greatest evolution with respect at the initial moment is the expectation of standing out in mathematics and statistics.The process of association of categories of the expectation value model was possible to establish the levels of relationship between the expectation of success, the value of achievement, and the value of utility that the students perceived as positive from the academic exchange process. Therefore, the design and facilitation of the course generated benefits in the observed motivational aspect, so that the work of teachers in remote learning situations in circumstances uncertain as COVID-19, will find in the design of international exchanges, significant experiences that can positively impact the motivation of students, which leads to scenarios with specific behaviors more favorable for learning.

Lloyd Morris, Dunia Duque, Olga Jasmin Salazar De Morris, Homero Murzi, Sandra Milena Durán Omaña
Open Access
Article
Conference Proceedings

Analysis of video conferencing platforms for online teaching during the Covid-19 pandemic

The global emergency due to the COVID-19 disease has forced educational systems around the world to move from a face-to-face pedagogical model to an online model which is developed in virtual learning environments. In this sense, this research aims to perform an analysis of the main video conference platforms such as Microsoft Teams, Zoom, Google Meet and WhatsApp that are used for teaching in order to understand the characteristics and usefulness that can be given to them in the teaching-learning process as well as the review of previous studies that validate its application and effects in the educational process.

Omar Cóndor-Herrera, Janio Jadán-Guerrero, Carlos Ramos-Galarza
Open Access
Article
Conference Proceedings

Bibliometric analysis of the existing literature on Covid-19 and its impact on higher education

Covid-19 has been among the most disruptive events in recent decades. At the time of writing, it has caused more than 5 million deaths worldwide and considerable economic losses. However, it has also sped up the process of technological development and technology adoption. One sector that has been deeply affected by the impact of the pandemic is higher education, which mainly includes universities. The higher education sector is a key sector in all types of societies. This strategic role lies in its mission to create and transmit knowledge. Given the universal importance of the higher education sector and the high impact that the Covid-19 pandemic has had on it, this study seeks to focus on this area by identifying the characteristics of the literature generated on this topic through the use of bibliometric techniques in the Scopus database. The searches were carried out in November 2021. The search terms were: Covid-19 AND ({higher education} OR (universities)). In order to delimit the scope of analysis, the areas of social science, human science, psychology, business management, and economics were selected. Only documents in English were included. As a result, 1,856 documents were obtained.

Jorge Cruz-Cárdenas, Nora Oleas, Carlos Ramos, Sonia Cueva-Ortiz, Jorge Guadalupe-Lanas
Open Access
Article
Conference Proceedings

The Transition from Covid-19 Pandemic Induced Online Learning to the Future Physical Campus: Is the Higher Education Ready?

This study explores the direct impacts of the current Covid-19 pandemic-induced online learning and teaching at the higher education level. It indicates that its future physical campus would be a hybrid or blended instruction setting when Covid-19 is over. Due to Covid-19 lockdown and social distance regulations, face-to-face classroom instruction was deemed unsafe for the academic community. Hence, online education became the cornerstone of academia’s ability to deliver its services to the students. Indirectly, Covid-19 forced academia to adopt online learning and teaching platforms to deliver and meet the students’ instructional needs. Developing more efficient online learning and teaching software and devices helped enhance and improve student learning outcomes during the Covid-19 lockdowns. Thus, academia needs to capitalize on these achievements. However, this development would challenge the monopoly powers of the traditional brick-and-mortar classroom setting. This study examines the evidence of the effectiveness and shortcomings of online learning and teaching. It further examines and provides strategies to resolve the digital learning and teaching challenges. This eradication would make the hybrid or blended learning and teaching setting effectively compete with the traditional brick-and-mortar classroom setting in the future physical campus of higher education. This study’s research questions are. What lessons have we learned from the current online education and learning model? Is the higher education level thinking and ready to adopt a new classroom setting? Would the hybrid or blended instruction promote better students learning outcomes and maximize their learning? Would the new learning mode promote better internationalization standards for higher education? Would the new learning mode be cost-efficient? The study’s findings on the above research questions demonstrate the importance, threats, and indirect effects of hybrid or blended learning instruction. The indirect effects are complementary to the future physical campus. The study will contribute to the literature on the next stage of learning and teaching in academia. The study would quicken the higher education institutions' planning and adaptation to a new learning instruction setting. The developers of complementary software and technology devices could start planning how they would create new pedagogical tools and benefit from the future campus. The study will reinforce the view that online learning and teaching instruction has come to stay with academia. The study shows how hybrid or blended learning instruction will help academia overcome some of the shortcomings of online learning and teaching education. The study will harmonize with previous studies by proving that hybrid or blended learning instruction is the next frontier of the students' learning instruction. The study could strengthen the growing awareness among faculty, scholars, researchers, and formal academic institutions on the subject matter.

Paulina Kuforiji, John Kuforiji
Open Access
Article
Conference Proceedings

How the COVID-19 pandemic fueled educational innovation in higher education.

The COVID-19 pandemic was the largest disruption to education systems in the world. Universities faced vulnerabilities such as low levels of digitization, deficits in their structures, low levels of digital literacy, and lack of financial resources. The students faced problems because they had low digital skills, less internet access and inadequate computers for a good virtual education. But the COVID-19 pandemic had another side. On the one hand, it meant the possibility of stimulating innovation in education. And on the other hand, it transformed several of the contexts for the implementation of the curriculum, so that various learning and skills became more relevant. In the present investigative work, the objective is to make visible the case of the Indoamerican University of Ecuador, which has a student population of 9,000 students and about 400 professors. The different actors were open to learning about educational technological tools, which helped to deal with complexity and uncertainty. In the present investigation it is established that the training in virtual education and the elaboration of digital material, the change of new educational platforms, the generation of MOOCs (Massive Online Open Courses), the radio programs and the production of academic ebooks, constituted educational innovations that supported the educational processes. at that university.

Cristian Londoño, Aide Naranjo
Open Access
Article
Conference Proceedings

Movement and cognition from the perspective of new technologies.

This paper discusses the relationship between movement and mental and cognitive function, as well as the potential for it to be utilized by new technologies. The first section of the paper presents the cerebral mechanisms responsible for associating physical with mental activity, and discusses examples of this influence on cognitive and emotional processes, as well as learning. The second section focuses on physical activity as an element of human interaction with a computer, including, but not limited to, so-called “exergames”. The subject of physical activity and cognitive functions is presented in the final section of the paper from the perspective of immersive virtual reality technology – a tool which appears to be highly compelling. Virtual reality seems uniquely suited to research on the relationship between movement and cognitive function.

Cezary Biele
Open Access
Article
Conference Proceedings

Design interactive teaching tools of programming language for senior high school students

In recent years, with the continuous advancement of technology, modern people live in the context of the digital age, they are proficient in various digital technologies, good at using mobile phones, computers, and smart home appliances, some people call them "digital natives". However, despite their familiarity with digital media, few can independently create new projects to solve life's problems. It’s as if they can read but don’t have the ability to write. Gradually, people began to realize the importance of programming languages. Programming education has become an important part of basic education, and more and more people are beginning to attach importance to computer science, programming logic, and computational thinking. Most countries have cultivated students' programming concepts from an early age, but programming languages begin to become abstract and difficult to understand when they reach a certain level. In high school, programming language courses are a difficult subject for many students. Generally, teaching aids are considered to enhance teaching effectiveness, promote learners’ cognition and make it easier to understand. That can help teachers express the content of the course more clearly when teaching. But sometimes, poorly designed teaching aids can become a more troublesome factor for teachers, such as delays in teaching time, leading to student misunderstandings or more problems, etc. Not every teaching aid is suitable as a classroom-aided learning tool. Therefore, this research will take the programming language courses of high school as the background, focus on the difficulties encountered by students in the classroom and design a set of interactive teaching aids “Pixel Button” for teaching algorithmic thinking. It is hoped that through Pixel Button, students' learning motivation and understanding will be enhanced.

Yu Ting Huang, Chien-Hsu Chen
Open Access
Article
Conference Proceedings

3D modeling Logs Based Design Process Mining Method and Its Application for Design Education

Computer aided 3D Modeling design software has an important role in today's design industries from wide range of areas on various project stages. In previous design studies on architectural design process, the conclusions were always draw upon data from like textual records, pictorial representations, interviews, and semantic coding, which inevitability own shortcomings of subjectivity, laboratory-based data, and not fully controlled environment variables. In response to the above problems, we turn to another kind of data possibility: the event logs generated from 3D modeling software platform during computer aided design process. Since each step of design operations is recorded in the event logs, the design behavioral sequences can be fully tracked. A method for design process study is hence developed based on event logs mining. With quantitative, objective and tractable characteristics, the method can help studying the problem-solving process of designers in CAD environment and summarizing design cognition conclusions. In this paper, we attempted to apply this method to a real college course in the School of Architecture at Tsinghua University. More than 100 junior students major in architecture participated in the course. Rhinoceros 3D(Rhino) was chosen as the CAD tool in this study for its popularity and wide-use in architecture and design educations. By building up a data recording plug-in in Rhino, our proposed method realizes digital supervision and data collection for the entire designer modeling design process, allowing students as researches to extract information including operational command name, command time, 3D object generation information, designer annotative and retrospective records and etc.. The method and this developed plug-in tool can automatically record and filter the large amount of data generated in 3D modeling process, which simplifies the data collection process, improves the quality of the data, and provides a new kind of data source and research method for the study of design process in CAD environment. Our course-based case study lead to some interesting conclusion and provides window for students to understand and perceive the design process through data mining based on event logs.

Qiaochu Liu, Wen Gao, Ziyu Huang, Weixin Huang
Open Access
Article
Conference Proceedings

NAO Robot as Scrum Master: Results from a scenario-based study on building rapport with a humanoid robot in hybrid higher education settings

Educational robots have been used as an effective intervention mainly in STEM education. A wide range of educational robots, including programmable toys and DIY electronics, have been used to support computational, engineering and problem solving skills, mainly of school children. However, the application of humanoid robots to support learning, especially in higher education, is still at its initial stage. Recent studies provide promising evidence about the potential of humanoid robots for motivation and learning outcomes in higher education. Humanoid, educational robots, such as the NAO robot, provide a multimodal interface which uses touch, speech, gestures and eye gaze for interaction, which is similar to human interaction in the physical world. Rapport is one of the key factors for a successful interaction with humanoid robots and a modulating factor for learning (Westlund & Breazeal, 2019). Rapport has been defined as a dynamic structure of mutual attentiveness, positivity, and coordination (Tickle-Degnen & Rosenthal, 1990). Rapport with humanoid robots can be established through verbal and nonverbal behaviour including dialogues, gestures and movements (Omokawa et al., 2019; Brown & Howard, 2014).In this paper we describe a scenario-based application of the NAO robot and the results from an online survey with 47 students (58% male, 42% female) who participated in two consecutive exploratory studies in hybrid learning settings (66% participated online, 34% F2F). The primary goal of our research was to evaluate to what extent students established rapport with NAO and to explore whether the quality of the rapport differed depending on the mode of participation (on the campus vs. online). The study was conducted with students in the Agile Project Management course in their third semester of Digital Business (B. Sc.). The robot-led scenario was designed as Daily Scrum, which is a 15-minute meeting held by teams using the Scrum framework. NAO was programmed using Choregraphe and Python to facilitate the Daily Scrum as the Scrum Master, whose task was to help students learn how to keep a daily scrum.Building rapport with NAO was assessed using the rapport scale by Gratch, et al. (2007), which was already applied in studies with robotic embodied agents. This scale builds on research revealing the potential of embodied agents to establish rapport and familiarity with humans through verbal and nonverbal behaviour. Additionally, students’ perceptions of the robot were measured using the Human-Robot Interaction Evaluation Scale (HRIES), which is used to evaluate how humans attribute human characteristics to robots (Spatola, et al., 2021). The results of the study indicate that students perceived NAO as a humanlike, anthropomorphic agent and that this perception positively affected student-robot rapport. Additionally, the paper explores the relationships between the rapport scores and the perception of students of key features of the robot including appearance, voice quality, pauses in speaking, pace of speaking, facial expression, movements of the body, head and hand, light effects and tactile interaction. Based on the findings, we discuss both our research contributions and practical implications for programming of humanoid, educational robots to enhance student-robot rapport as part of HRI.

Ilona Buchem, Niklas Baecker
Open Access
Article
Conference Proceedings

From disembodied to embodied: the embodied transformation of children's architectural education learning situation design

The current traditional teaching mode of children's architectural education makes children's bodies detached from the situation, and there are problems such as abstract knowledge, single perception, and lack of practice. Based on the concept of embodied learning, this paper proposes a design strategy for embodied learning situations, and on this theoretical basis, designs and implements children's educational practice services based on Huayao's traditional architectural culture. Firstly, through literature research, based on situational learning and embodied cognition theory, analyze the characteristics of children's cognition, explore the internal connection between situation and children's architectural education, discuss the significance of embodied theory in the design of learning situations, and draw the conclusion of the learning process of embodied situations. Three stages, namely perception, engagement, and reflection on the situation. On this basis, it proposes the design strategy of embodied learning situation, and discusses four aspects: daily cultural situation, embodied resource situation, role task situation, and evaluation generation situation. Provide an effective reference for the design of architectural education activities for children, and design learning situations through embodied concepts to help children in architectural education activities to explore interaction, knowledge transfer, and cultural generation, and improve creativity and innovative thinking.

Jing Xu, Duoduo Zhang
Open Access
Article
Conference Proceedings

State Program for Youth Worker - An Innovative Form for Training Specialists about Youth Work

In accordance with the tasks and measures for the implementation of the State Targeted Social Program «Youth of Ukraine» for 2016-2020, the Government's Priority Action Plan for 2018 and in order to provide young people with knowledge and skills through non-formal education as a modern form of meeting the educational needs of individuals implementation plan of program «Youth Worker» was developed. The program provides a set of interrelated tasks and activities for the implementation of state policy in the sphere of youth, acquisition of knowledge and skills necessary for self-realization of youth. The Program is implemented at the national, regional and local levels and is based on the principles of partnership, as well as the principles of non-formal education. The article covers formation and development of the program «Youth Worker»; the educational content of the program is outlined in accordance with the training modules; statistical data and reports of the program were studied; the forms of realization of the program «Youth Worker» are covered. The program is designed for representatives of civil society institutions working with youth and civil servants responsible for the implementation of state policy in the youth sphere at the national, local, regional levels, as well as for other people involved in the youth work. During the implementation of the Program (since 2014) more than 2,800 youth workers from all regions of Ukraine have been trained, in particular, in 2019 1,055 specialists were trained. To achieve goal of the study a set of general scientific methods was used: analysis of scientific publications to outline the essence of the problems of formation and development of the program «Youth Worker»; analysis and synthesis - to highlight the peculiarities of the development of the program «Youth Worker» in Ukraine; systematization and generalization of problems of formation and development of the program «Youth Worker» in Ukraine to formulate conclusions based on the results of the study. The purpose of the study is to substantiate the formation and development of the program «Youth Worker» in Ukraine. The results of the survey of participants in the basic training «Youth Worker» in 2019 state that most participants fully or partially considered themselves youth workers before the training - 95.2%, after the training - 97.7%. Conclusions. Formation and development of the program «Youth Worker» in Ukraine is an innovative form of training professionals to work with young people. And also an important stage of implementation and realization of youth policy, youth work and popularization of the specialist - of the youth worker. Every year the popularity of the youth workers training program increases. The results of the survey state that more than 90% of participants consider themselves youth workers and apply all the acquired knowledge and skills in their practical activities.

Nataliia Levchenko, Olena Baldyniuk, Iryna Karpych, Olha Boiko, Yuliya Klymenko, Natalia Koliada
Open Access
Article
Conference Proceedings

Fogg behavior model for children's sex education

In recent years, many cases of child sexual abuse have been exposed by the media. In addition to unscrupulous criminals and imperfect laws, children cannot correctly understand "sex" and lack of self-protection consciousness, which is also one of the sources of a series of tragedies. Therefore, the social attention of child sex education continues to rise. No matter family, school or society begin to advocate sex education, among which the role of family sex education can not be ignored. Based on the relevant research on the design of child sex education services, many literatures have identified the stakeholders of child sex education, put forward the issue of child sex education from the perspective of behavior design, and put forward the importance of parental participation. The key point of sex education for children is to drive parents' educational behavior and improve children's sexual knowledge acquisition degree. Parents' reasonable and perfect sex education can give children a healthier body and mind and avoid harm. But what kind of education form and content can better achieve the purpose has become the focus of social attention. This paper introduces the way of service design to integrate related resources and construct a service system to meet the needs of parents to carry out sex education for children. Information systems or software that strengthen, change or form a person's behavior, purpose or attitude without coercive means are called persuasion systems. It is proposed by Professor BJ Fogg from Stanford University to use persuasion technology to realize the design purpose of persuasion system, which can also be called "persuasive design". At present, theories of behavior table, FBM behavior model, eight steps of persuasive design, and persuasive web design have been formed, all of which are attributed to the unremitting research of scholars such as BJ Fogg and Andrew Chak. FBM model is a new model established by Fogg to study human behavior. It is a behavior model based on persuasive design. According to THE FBM model, there are three basic factors for individuals to produce behaviors. The first is motivation factor, which requires users to have certain motivation support to realize certain behaviors. Ability factor refers to the user's ability to achieve a behavior, or the difficulty of a behavior itself to the user's ability requirements; A trigger is a point of opportunity for the final completion of the action.Based on these theories, this paper will study the sex education model suitable for parents to realize in the family.With the support of persuasion theory, the behavior and needs of parents and children are analyzed to obtain the behavior table, and the three elements of behavior realization are analyzed according to Fogg behavior model. First of all, this paper analyzes the different behaviors that parents and children may have in the process of sex education, analyzes the relationship between them by using the behavior table, and analyzes the causes behind it. Secondly, this paper constructs the Fogg behavior model of children's sex education. Fogg behavior model is a new model established by Fogg to study human behavior. It is a behavior model based on persuasive design. According to Fogg's behavior model, there are three basic factors for individuals to produce behavior: motivation factor, ability factor and trigger factor. This paper analyzes the basic elements of parents' and children's behaviors in the process of sex education from three aspects of motivation, ability and trigger points, and puts forward some strategies to improve the quality of sex education for children, hoping to better improve the quality of sex education and play a positive role in promoting the development of sex education for children in the future.

Xiyu Wang, Li Xu
Open Access
Article
Conference Proceedings

Co-Development Approach integrating Training into the Design Process

Since the introduction of advanced automation technology within highly dynamic and complex systems, traditional approaches to training no longer appear to be adequate in preparing end-users of such technologies (Carroll and Olson, 1988). Advances in design processes have resulted in the creation of user-centered designs that employ an iterative design process that follows a cyclical pattern, where the prototype is designed, created and evaluated, throughout multiple loops. Once the final design solution is validated, a training session is organized to prepare the end-user for the Human in the loop Simulation. Since the training sessions and the preparation of these training sessions are conceived after the completion and validation of the design; any issues with the design often result in extended training sessions to compensate for human factors that were overlooked in the initial design. Nonetheless, such enhanced training “cannot and should not be a fix for bad design” (Sarter, Woods & Billings, 1997.p.1936). This research intended to consider the training from the onset of the design in order to avoid transferring the burden of a poor design onto the training. This was not fully possible in the framework of the SAFEMODE project, where this research was conducted, as some design iterations had already taken place prior to the implementation of the proposed training considerations. Instead, a training approach involving future users as part of the system design, hereafter referred to as “Co-Development”, was proposed and tested during the creation of a safety net or alert for air-traffic controllers. Building on this added value to user-centered design, we investigated: To what extent does the co-development of the training with end-users improve the training, the design, and the acceptability of the designed alert?This paper presents this Co-Development approach and the outcome of its first implementation; particularly in terms of its impact on the training, the design, and the acceptability of the alert. Specifically, this system design approach allows for human factor issues to be identified and hence corrected early in the design stage, thus yielding a potential impact on the acceptability and usability of the alert, while simultaneously affecting safety through an improved user-centered design experience. This paper also proposes a future research direction that consists of a joint training and design approach that considers training right from the onset of the first iteration of the design. As a result, the training is conceived jointly and evolves simultaneously with each design loop, further improving the design, and thus reducing the burden placed onto the training due to design shortfalls and impossible design challenges that are seemingly improbable to meet.

Diana Paola Moreno-Alarcon, Corinne Bieder
Open Access
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Conference Proceedings

Development of a Method to Visualize the Approximate Synchronization Ratio of a Teaching Material Clickstream in Class

This study proposes a method for a large number of university students to analyze the synchronization ratio in opening teaching materials in classes using Moodle learning management system (LMS) and online teaching materials. Furthermore, this research analyzes the results in terms of both educational technology and ergonomics and discusses the improvement in the interaction between teachers and learners. Learners’ reactions are influenced not only by the teacher's instructions, but also by various factors such as the quality of the content, the method of presenting the teaching materials, the performance of the software, and the performance of the monitor screen. Therefore, using the proposed method, the analysis was limited to the clickstream of the teaching material accumulated in the LMS. The time-series cross-section displays the synchronization ratio of teaching materials in the class in graphs and tables at intervals of between 1 and 5 minutes. Moreover, since the synchronization ratio is based on the time-series cross-section for each learner, one can observe the synchronized learners, the learners who open the teaching materials late, and the learners who never open the teaching materials.

Konomu Dobashi
Open Access
Article
Conference Proceedings

The New Paradigm for Teaching Design: A reflection on innovation in materials teaching in the “Online Season”

In Portugal, it´sa National Strategy, the innovation in teaching, the connection between Faculties and Research Center, being a social and academic responsibility, to the good training and qualification of students. This can be an extra motivating factor for the students performance of academic work and better preparation for working life.In March 2005, the Portuguese government launched the strategy plan for the creation of a Digital Portugal, which is based on three pillars, I: digital inclusion of people, II: Digital transformation of the business fabric and III: digitization of the state. According to this plan, Education and its digitization are part of the 1st pillar, which aims above all “The empowerment and digital inclusion of people emerge as imperatives to respond to the impact that digitization can have on the life of each individual, implying an integrated approach that ensures differentiated measures depending on the life cycle of citizens” (Portugal Digital, p.15), however, in 2020, when the pandemic began, several failures were verified in the digitalization of education, leaving students without conditions / without classes, being urgent for the development and training of students, tools to support the development of their work, however, Little has been done since then.In such a specific area as materials and technologies, the need to find support becomes even more urgent.The new materials and the technological systems, the evaluation of the programmatic contents, increasing the attention to teaching materials in design, offered by the Faculties of design, is an activity in constant update, forcing a better preparation of the contents taught in 1st cycle studies. This is proved by the actual situation promote by the pandemic of COVID19. Professors and Students are learning news ways to complete the academic year. in this study we intent to known how the students of 1st cycle of design courses, and their teachers, have been approached with materials, research and practical work, when we have been teaching and learning through virtual classes, and how they how they managed to work remotely, in this situation.The research team consider that it is extremely important to carry out a survey for students of 1st cycle of design courses, and to their teachers, on their approach with materials, research and practical work, as well as the relationship of practice with the theory given by the teachers, comparing with the initial survey, done by the author in 2018, abou the same theme.

Alexandra Luis
Open Access
Article
Conference Proceedings

"Industry-University-Research" Collaborative Innovative Compound Talent Evaluation System Design Study and Application

Explore a scientifically compound talent evaluation system which is suitable for the needs of Industry-University-Research Collaborative innovation, to better serve the collaborative innovation activities of various industries and fields. This research upgrading and innovating a method for constructing talent evaluation system based on Industry-University-Research collaborative innovation needs, design and reconstruction the university laboratory talent evaluation system under the background of "New Engineering Disciplines" with this method. This paper demonstrates how to construct a new user group for talent evaluation system, export and transfer their requirements. This paper design and reconstruction of evaluation system, mining of evaluation indicators, visualization of evaluation results, and design of how to use evaluation results. This research case outputs a modularized combination of University Laboratory talent evaluation system, which consists of 5 major modules, 22 secondary indicators and 95 tertiary indicators. The feasibility, validity and innovation of the results of this study were verified by expert review.

Yonghong Liu, Yanlin Yin, Keyan Lin, Yiming Song, Siyue Lin
Open Access
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Conference Proceedings

Assessing the emotional state in teachers and university administrative staff when returning to presential work.

Social distancing and security measures have contained the spread of the COVID-19 pandemic. Despite this, the return to face-to-face activities is necessary for specific companies, and some higher education institutions have already done so. The various disorders that this new reality could generate have motivated the present study, which aims to analyze the emotional state of teachers and administrative staff. The instrument used was the abbreviated depression, anxiety, and stress scale (DASS-21) with an internal consistency index of 0.87. The methodology was based on applying a survey to 202 participants from Quito, Ecuador. The sample consisted of 97 men, and 105 women, aged between 23 and 59 years. A quantitative and cross-sectional design was used in this research. The results show that 40.1% of the respondents presented anxiety, 36.63% depression, and 38.61% stress between mild and highly severe categories. Thus, returning to-face-to-face mode has affected the emotional state of many people, showing differences according to the job position, being anxiety as the highest self-identified incidence rate.

Doris Pérez, Hugo Arias-Flores, Jorge Guadalupe-Lanas
Open Access
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Learning Strategies and Satisfaction of University Services from the Student Perspective

Higher education in Ecuador and in the world faces contemporary challenges that require concentrating efforts to achieve increasingly superior results of the teaching-learning process, especially in this evolution and the transfer of face-to-face classrooms to virtual ones on the one hand and on the other. , also correlate the effect that institutional services have on it. It sounds a bit strange to say this, but there are students who associate the level and quality of teaching-learning also with the way they receive services from the University or Technological Institute. That is why the objective of the study was to evaluate learning strategies and satisfaction in relation to university services from the student perspective in students of the State University of Bolívar. A basic, non-experimental, descriptive and cross-sectional research was developed with a cluster sampling strategy that included a sample of 199 students from the Faculty of Human Sciences of the State University of Bolívar, the inclusion criteria were: first those who were legally enrolled, second those who have received at least two semesters of classes (so that they can evaluate institutional services), third who are of legal age (greater than or equal to 18 years) and finally, fourth who voluntarily decide to participate in the research. As instruments, the CEVEAPEU questionnaire and a student satisfaction questionnaire in relation to university services were applied, both instruments were duly chosen from other investigations that carried out the reliability and validity processes for their application. It was possible to confront the theory of educational strategies, its attributions and conceptions of multiple intelligences in students, as modifiable in the level of student satisfaction with all university services, it was shown a high level and in relation to the importance only the educational environment reached a medium level in two races. Despite obtaining high levels of evaluation of the learning scales and subscales, there is a differentiated behavior of the evaluation of AE between the different careers investigated. Finally, as a conclusion, Ecuadorian HEIs must work on modernization plans for administrative management that are born based on the administrative processes that are carried out in the different departments, where quality regulations can help improve the management system. The study of these processes within a general quality framework is supported by three fundamental pillars: 1) appropriate tools for the process in question, 2) well-established methodologies, and 3) the necessary training of all the people involved in this case. the administrative staff, teachers and students, this is an essential aspect in the improvement processes in the faculty. In addition to this, efforts must also be focused on improving the use of computer strategies through dynamic virtual classes and specialized tools related to technology. In addition to implementing places and / or playful courses that allow better student well-being.

Cesar Guevara, Ruth Narciza Zambrano Pintado, Hugo Luis Moncayo Cueva
Open Access
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Conference Proceedings

Blended Learning Approach to Youth Entrepreneurship Skills Development

The relevance of youth entrepreneurship education has been growing recently. There is also a growing trend to focus on blended learning. However, there is still a gap of knowledge on how blended learning approach can foster youth entrepreneurship education. The paper examines the preconditions for application of blended learning approach to develop youth entrepreneurship skills at school level. Empirical research is based on the case of Lithuanian–Polish cross-border cooperation project “Business can be simple”. The research revealed that blended learning mentoring was helpful as it led to the development of new innovative products and solution of problems. To achieve a smooth blended learning process, emphasis should be placed on time planning, mutual communication, motivation of students, and experience and competence of educators.

Rūta Čiutienė, Ramunė Čiarnienė
Open Access
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Ethical Considerations for the Application of Virtual Reality in Education and Training

Virtual Reality (VR) refers to a visual experience that creates a fully immersive sensation surrounded by three-dimensional (3D) stereoscopic images of a virtually artificial or pre-recorded environment. Differing new aspects of VR usage in different domains (e.g., aviation, healthcare, military, education etc.) have sprung up in the past few decades. However, ethical problems in the use of VR along with its physical and psychological harm calls for a critical evaluation of the technology before it can be utilized for everyday use. The goal of this paper is to inspect the ethical implications involving both personal as well as the societal impact of deploying VR in education and training purposes. In addition, a few recommendations for ensuring the ethical use of VR in the future is presented.

Hasan Mahbub Tusher, Salman Nazir, Steven Mallam
Open Access
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Project-based Learning Method Applied in College English Teaching: Case Study of an Instructional Design

The development of information technology pushes forward the change of the teaching model. In general, the instructional design is becoming student-centered. In China, in college English class, more emphases are put on fostering students' language output ability. Therefore, PBL (Project-based Learning) is becoming increasingly popular, and BOPPPS (Bridge-in, Objective/Outcome, Pre-assessment, Participatory Learning, Post-assessment, Summary) mode is adopted by a growing number of English teachers. This paper tries to illustrate the application of PBL into college English class by studying an instructional design.

Jian Liu
Open Access
Article
Conference Proceedings

Construction of Comprehensive Evaluation Model for Non-Technical Skills of Art Teacher under Cross-Discipline

Non-technical skills (NTS) refer to the cognitive and interpersonal capability contributing to working performance according to occupation requirements. The NTS of arts education teachers improves education and teaching quality in the art discipline. To evaluate arts education teachers' NTS, we first designed a questionnaire analyzing four dimensions: decision-making, communication skills, self-management, and situational awareness. We extracted twelve indexes of NTS through the data analysis and established an evaluation model. Subsequently, we adopted the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) for weight calculation and constructed a comprehensive evaluation model of art teachers. This model can provide a practical method and basis for evaluating, training, and selecting art teachers in colleges and universities and improving their NTS.

Zhang Yao, Zhao Yating, Yihang Du
Open Access
Article
Conference Proceedings

Fun as a Strategic Advantage: Applying Lessons in Engagement from Commercial Games to Military Logistics Training

Games have been identified as a potential solution to improving learning outcomes in educational settings. Game environments offer many elements to augment traditional classroom learning such as lectures and static reading assignments. They enable players to explore concepts through repeat play in a low-risk environment, and can integrate feedback into gameplay to enable students to evaluate their own performance. Commercial games leverage a number of features to engage players and hold their attention; they typically use enticing graphics and visual elements, and break game play down for new players. But do those methods have a place in instructional environments with a captive and motivated audience? Our experience and measures suggest that yes; applying lessons in engagement from commercial games can help students become more invested in their learning. Though the military may not prioritize fun, they are interested in leveraging potentially effective training methods.MIT Lincoln Laboratory worked with the Office of Naval Research Global TechSolutions (ONR Global TechSolutions), the Marine Corps University Expeditionary Warfighting School (MCU EWS), and the Marine Corps Expeditionary Energy Office (E2O) to develop an interactive, web-based serious game prototype that teaches the principles of logistics and their trade-offs. Developed from a proposal by Marine Corps Captains, the game’s overarching objective was to improve the education and training of Marine Corps University students on the topic of energy management and logistics. Throughout development, MIT LL conducted game assessments at regular intervals, both with internal personnel and Marine Corps University students to validate project goals and guide development. A final test was conducted at the conclusion of development to measure usability against earlier results to measure learning outcomes, and examine the impact of engagement on learning outcomes as well as user reported experience. The game was tested with 12 students and 4 non-student personnel, who represented a mix of operations, logistics, and other disciplines. Students were split between “engaged” (7 students) and “de-engaged” conditions (5 students), where the “de-engaged” condition replaced introductory movies with equivalent static content, and removed decorative elements. Game rules, game information, user support information, and user workflows did not change between the conditions. Though testing was conducted throughout with a relatively small sample size, qualitative and quantitative measures suggest results relevant to how game-based and digital learning tools are designed. Reported usability increased considerably throughout development with less coaching and support, including during development phases focused almost exclusively on improving engagement and applying lessons from entertainment games. In the final assessment, those in the “engaged” condition reported higher usability scores as expected, but also reported making less mistakes and finding play easier. Additionally, those in the “engaged” condition reported finding stronger connections between the principles of logistics presented, indicating that there is a connection between engaging features and learning outcomes. Though more research is needed to see if results hold up more broadly, these results indicate that the integration of engaging features can improve engagement and perception as well as potentially improving learning outcomes even with communities that may not traditionally prioritize engagement.

Jesslyn Alekseyev, Madeline Chmielinski, Emmanuel Mallea, Jo Kurucar, Vincent Mancuso, Robert Seater
Open Access
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Evaluating an Immersive Learning Environment for Robotics Training

In Spring 2021, an interdisciplinary team of researchers at Florida International University (FIU) designed a virtual reality (VR) training prototype for novices to learn how to work with industrial robots. Developed with the support of a grant from the National Science Foundation (NSF) by a team of architecture and computer science faculty, the Robotics Academy immersive learning environment prototype leverages advanced technologies to teach robotics in a fully immersive VR environment. This paper will describe the learning environment, the introductory lesson prototype, the learning evaluation tools, and the comparative outcomes of testing this learning prototype with a test group and a control group.As robotic automation continues to transform manufacturing, construction, and other industries, VR may offer a solution for training the labor force for more technically demanding jobs. VR provides computer-generated simulations of the real or an imagined environment that can serve as a rich and engaging space for learning (Mantovani et al., 2003). Recent research demonstrates that immersive environments can facilitate learning (and the assessment of learning) by providing a safe and low-cost setting for practice and rehearsal (Beck, 2019). Training workers to operate robots in a traditional classroom setting often relies on low teacher to student ratios as a means for accommodating individualized or small group coaching using a dedicated training robot. This pedagogical method can be both costly and time consuming. Meanwhile, on-the-job training can both slow down production and expose inexperienced trainers and trainees to potentially hazardous conditions. Immersive virtual learning environments offer a potential solution to reduce the cost of traditional training and mitigate exposure to hazardous conditions while learning how to operate industrial robots.The design team for the Robotics Academy created an immersive learning environment with simulated robots and input devices while the curriculum team developed both a script introducing the fundamentals of industrial robotic safety and a series of self-directed activities for learning how to operate an industrial robot. To measure the effectiveness of our VR learning tool the evaluation team offered 45 minutes of self-directed learning using a VR headset to a test group of twenty-one second year architecture students with no prior knowledge or experience working with industrial robots. A control group of twenty-one second year architecture students with similar background received training using the same script paired with an image-based slide lecture in a traditional classroom setting, but they were not provided access to the VR training tool or practice time to work with a robot. Both groups were tested with a short quiz to assess their retention of key concepts from the script and a practicum test using a teach pendant input device for controlling an industrial robot. Finally, students were asked to rate their own level of confidence, self-reliance, and readiness to proceed to the next level of training. On the written test students showed similar rates of retention of key concepts from the training script with a modestly higher average score for in-person training over the VR training tool. However, in a series of timed exercises, students who used the VR training tool demonstrated higher levels of task accomplishment with fewer errors and faster completion times for practicum testing. Finally, those who used the VR training tool reported higher levels of self-confidence. While more learning outcome testing is necessary, these initial results indicate that immersive learning environments like our VR tool may be an effective method for educating the labor force for jobs that involve automation with technology such as industrial robots.

Eric Peterson, Biayna Bogosian, Shahin Vassigh
Open Access
Article
Conference Proceedings

Student Perceptions of Traditional and Simulated Learning in Greenhouse Management

Environmental control (EC) units in the greenhouse environment help maximize yields and profits by minimizing energy and labor costs. Instructing students to properly and confidently employ ECs in greenhouse management is critically importance to food production advancement. This paper summarizes existing literature and comprehensive reviews on different teaching methods and student learning behavior for greenhouse environment control and survey tools for understanding student skills attainment. It also focuses on determining which survey items and tools successfully assess academic success, student engagement, and investigate if a particular educational tool developed is the best fit for specific learning outcomes. Findings demonstrate students are more interested in detail-oriented course materials, are receptive to feedback, and want to become confident applying their learning to real-world problems.

Abigail Werner, Shuchisnigdha Deb, Rafia Rahman, Amelia A A Fox, Richard L Harkess, Daniel Carruth, Christopher R. Hudson
Open Access
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WebQuest as a Factor of Teaching Teamwork

An educational WebQuest can and should be used in teaching teamwork to students. Readiness for social interaction and implementation of one’s role in a team is a fundamentally important personal and professional quality (i.e., a subsystem of social and professional competency) in the modern world. The organization of group work of students is a mechanism for the development of both teamwork skills and personal experience of this work. The digital transformation of the educational environment creates favorable conditions for the development of competences as well as personal and professional qualities of students, including the willingness to work in a team: in the digital educational environment, it is possible to organize information interaction between students. An educational WebQuest as a competency-based learning technology stimulates both individual and group activities of students, which can be managed by students themselves. The authors have substantiated that version control in performing WebQuest tasks is an effective mechanism for obtaining primary information, which makes it possible to assess students’ readiness to work in a team. A method of processing the primary information reflecting the actions (and their results) during the students’ teamwork is proposed in this connection. The research involves a pedagogical experiment performed at Kuban State Technological University (Krasnodar, Russia), including the university-based regional school technology park. The analysis of the factual data shows the high efficiency of using WebQuests for organizing teamwork of both junior university students and school students involved in studying at the technology park. The theoretical significance of the research results is that they can contribute to further scientific understanding of such a problem as the development of students’ readiness for social interaction and realization of their role in the team, the practical significance lies in the fact that the research results can be a basis for the design of pedagogical technologies aimed at developing the specified personal and professional quality in students.

Tatiana Shaposhnikova, Alexander Gerashchenko, Tatiana Shabanova, Victoria Vyazankova, Marina Romanova
Open Access
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Optimization of Online Vocabulary Learning Platform Based on Kano Model

In the case of a worldwide epidemic, a lot of vocabulary learning software and applications have shown up in the online app stores in China. The Study builds a demand system with 8 dimensions and 31 features from three aspects, including content, function and design. On such a basis, users of vocabulary learning platforms are taken as the objects of research. Then, with Kano Model theory and research methods, the statistic analysis of data is conducted to obtain the results of demand evaluation. The satisfaction and dissatisfaction coefficients are calculated as well. On this basis, users’ demands are classified into four-quadrant diagrams and obtain 8 Must-be attributes, 6 One-dimensional attributes, and 11 Attractive attributes. The research prioritizes the platform features and proposes corresponding design strategies. The purpose is to build more individualized online platforms for vocabulary learning and enhance learners’ motivations. Finally, some principles of designing online vocabulary learning platforms are summarized to offer reliable guidance and suggestions on subsequent studies and functional designs in this field.

Huai Cao, Kaixuan He, Xiuling Wang, Xinyue Gong
Open Access
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Conference Proceedings

Integration of Immersive Learning Simulation and Augmented Reality for Healthcare Training: Towards a Transmedia Solution to Address the Opioid Crisis

Immersive Learning Simulation (ILS) and Augmented Reality (AR) technologies hold tremendous potential for transforming training and education for healthcare professionals and patients. While both ILS and AR have demonstrated an unprecedented level of success in a variety of healthcare training and education applications, particularly in the last few years, combining the two approaches remains a relatively uncharted territory. This is largely due to the relative lack of evidence-based methods, strategies, and practical guidance for the design and implementation of mixed reality and transmedia learning environments. This paper presentation will discuss new integration strategies for bringing together the ILS and AR technologies to provide a mixed transmedia learning experience where the virtual and physical components seamlessly co-exist to create a new level of sophistication for education, training, and human performance support. The ILS/AR integration strategies will be presented within the context of an ongoing federally-sponsored research effort that aims to design, develop, and evaluate an innovative learning solution to help address the national opioid crisis with an ultimate goal of improving outcomes for people at risk for opioid misuse and overdose. Focusing on the training needs of healthcare professionals, first responders, and ordinary people (family members, caregivers, etc.) who are on the frontlines of the ongoing opioid crisis, the presented integrated ILS/AR solution illustrates how this transmedia approach can be used for training diverse learner audiences. Based on this research effort, the presenters will share practical insights, lessons learned, and best practices for the design of comprehensive integrated ILS/AR-based solutions that can be easily applied to create effective and engaging learning experiences for a broad spectrum of training, education, and human performance support needs.

Anya Andrews, Doug Nelson
Open Access
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New Space Exploration of Chinese Education in the 21st Century Based on Heuristic Infiltration Teaching Method

With the rapid development of China in recent decades, people's life has undergone a qualitative change, facing a new way of life and a new way of thinking. In this context, this study will discuss what kind of buildings, Spaces and urban status have changed with these changes, which will change, what architects can do for these changes, and what attitude they should hold towards these changes.This study comes from the open architecture design course of the School of Architecture of Chang 'an University in 2021, which is taught by Lei Mao, an architect who graduated from Berlage Institute. The course trains students' comprehensive ability to find and solve problems in the design process through the classical heuristic and penetrative teaching method of Berlage Institute.Research contents and objectivesSince the 1970s, the resumption of National College Entrance Examination has restored order to the country's selection of talent, but the single and fixed selection method has led to the internal examination of learning competition, and thus the cram school system, which is independent of the education system. This paper will systematically study this new type of remedial education space.The author tries to through the method of design, research of urban living space in the phenomenon summarized, analysis, deconstruction, at the same time, compare with standardized format education space, summarized similarities and differences of the two, in the study based on the results of analysis of continuation education space in the form of architecture design of refactoring.Research pathResearch path :(1) Determination of research object (2) Construction of research framework (3) Investigation and information collection (4) Induction and analysis of spatial features (5) Expression of design drawings.Firstly, the architectural environment space of the cram school is determined as the research topic. Then, the research framework of the space history and type of cram school was set up. According to the framework, information was collected and the internal scale of space was studied. The research results were expressed with plan and axonometric map. At last, based on the preliminary research, the architectural design is carried out. In this stage, the connection between architecture and exterior is no longer emphasized, but the organization of the internal space of the building, and the reality is reflected through the design results, which causes social reflection.4. Conclusion(1) Architecture and space often develop with the changes of The Times. The cram school space evolved from the traditional education space, but its profit and commodity nature makes it different from the education space such as school.(2) Intensive cram school buildings are likely to emerge in the future. In the course, the relationship between architectural space scale, crowd and activity type is discussed, and the possibility of intensive design of cram school is proposed. Complement the existing educational space.(3)The architect in the design of new type of space, through combing the historical trace of the spatial analysis of the current existing strong correlation and weak correlation space types, explore the space variable and variable, on the basis of this system between ground-to-air refactoring, to get a new space pattern and space form.

Siyi Huang, Jiawei Wang, Lei Mao, Juan Ren, Lei Zhang
Open Access
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Promoting indigenous cultural awareness through participatory game design with children

As urbanization progresses in China's rural areas, so do the severity of social issues, including the decline of social assets, the recession of agricultural industries, the lack of community cohesion, and a weak sense of belonging. A decline in cultural awareness is the reason behind such phenomena, which stems from changes to residents' lifestyles and a lack of cultural beliefs. This issue also results in insufficient cultural awareness, weak cultural inheritance, and neglect of cultural values among community residents. To this end, this paper aims to examine an educational model to enhance the cultural awareness of local community residents.At present, there are two types of education methods to enhance cultural awareness: passive types and active types. For example, passive education refers to the enhancement of participants’ cultural qualities through the problem-solving style lesson and ‘implicit’ curriculum, while an active education might use reflective writing or PD to promote cultural awareness. Of the two, active education, represented by PD, is more conducive to participants' acceptance of cultural knowledge. PD is also an effective method for developing humanitarianism in developing countries. It can be applied to the special scenario of rural communities in China as a new solution for raising the cultural awareness of residents. This paper shares a specific case study of enhancing residents' cultural awareness in community collective memory using participatory game design.A total of eight subjects were selected in this study. Since children are the future of the community's cultural development, the subjects included 6 children and 2 adults. Unlike traditional PD, this study focused on attracting the interests of subjects and enhancing their abilities to inherit traditional culture through participatory game design. The study consisted of three workshops: the cultural exploration workshop, the game design workshop, and the game testing workshop. Activity theory was used as a basis to guide the choice of time, location, and power dynamics, from which a framework of participatory activities covering the four approaches of "probing", "telling", "acting", and "making" was developed for the workshops. To further enhance collaboration, participants were also provided with a complete set of toolkits during the three workshops, including role-playing tools, game idea cards, house of cards, scaffolding, etc. At the end of each workshop, the Cultural Awareness Scale, which contains the three elements of cultural cognition, cultural heritage, and cultural values, was administered to measure the change in cultural awareness of the subjects. A mixed methods approach was used in analysis to uncover underlying cultural associations. The study qualitatively analyzed the transcribed spoken words and behaviors of the subjects using multimodal analysis, and quantitatively analyzed the variations in the word count of the text and the level of detail in the elaboration. In summary, this case study is important for examining cultural education models and improving the cultural awareness of the population. It also provides a framework of activities for participatory design workshops, which can serve as a reference for further research.

Yuhan Liu, Baosheng Wang
Open Access
Article
Conference Proceedings

Pedagogical Model Based On Edgar Morín's Complex Thinking In School Management

The objective of this research was to propose a pedagogical model based on the complex thinking of Édgar Morín to strengthen the School Management of the Ángel Polibio Cháves Educational Unit, Ecuador. This research was of an applied type, descriptive scope, quantitative approach and non-experimental design; the non-random sample for convenience. The research technique used was the survey and the instrument a questionnaire composed of 24 closed polytomous items on a Likert scale, Cronbach's alpha consistency 0.895; Within the framework of the study variable and for each of its dimensions, the results found showed that 37% is at a low level, 60% at a medium level and 3% at a high level, from which it is inferred that the school management of The educational unit must be strengthened through the pedagogical model, which is based on the theory of complex thought and the seven necessary knowledge for the education of the future, emphasizing the principles of pertinent knowledge, teaching human understanding and the ethics of gender. What will motivate students the value of learning and the importance of knowledge, contrast concepts in search of relevance and respect the human condition.

Cesar Guevara, Carlos Manuel Núñez Michuy, Diego Mauricio Bonilla Jurado, Verónica Teresa Veloz Segura
Open Access
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Application of Scaffolds in the Computer-Supported Intentional Learning Environment

Class debates have grown in popularity during the last decade. Educational scholars found that dialogic debates are more instructive than oppositional debates. The movements are made during a disagreement when two parties try to reason together. It compares new ideas to old ones and looks at a topic or issue from several aspects. Education needs dialogic as it allows students to reconstruct personal knowledge and advances scientific understanding. Previously referred to as knowledge building and then now referred to as knowledge creation since its similarities to the literature on innovation and knowledge generation. Knowledge building forum would encourage discourse rather than argumentation, according to the literature on this approach, encompasses a more extensive range of methods than the language-driven ones generally linked with argumentation. Students conducted a class discussion and writing through a knowledge building approach in this study. Their dialogue took place in an online learning environment called a Knowledge Building Forum. The ultimate objective of the research study is to investigate how would teacher include scaffolds into their knowledge building forum note writing and how would they incorporate them into their teaching.

Amic Ho
Open Access
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Psycho-emotional state of school children in conditions of quarantine limitations and distance learning

The changes that occur at the psychological level have affected the ability to perceive reality and control emotional stress. Increased anxiety is associated with a feeling of loss of control and the inability to distance oneself from automatic negative thoughts that arise as a result of psychological contagion.The purpose of the study is to highlight the features of the psycho-emotional state of schoolchildren in conditions of quarantine restrictions and distance learning.A questionnaire was chosen as a methodological study, the purpose of which is to study the psychological state of schoolchildren and determine their attitude to the need for quarantine and, therefore, distance learning. Studies show that the negative effects of stress are deeper in children under 10 years old. Children of different ages react differently to stressful events.The development of recommendations for children of different ages in order to overcome the consequences of social isolation involves creating opportunities for children of different ages to acquire the necessary psychological knowledge, skills and abilities, which will reduce the effects of quarantine.The creation of a new social reality, due to inevitable changes in the minds of citizens of Ukraine and each individual state, is a systemic process that requires reconstruction of the focus of perception, increasing the vitality and awareness of each person. However, in our opinion, it is necessary to influence children first, because they are more receptive and only form worldviews and values. Eventually, their influence will be decisive in changing the attitude of older generations to the consequences of quarantine, which will establish an internal readiness for negative external factors and formation of adaptive coping strategies of behavior in conditions of social uncertainty and existential crisis.

Oksana Kravchenko, Oleksandr Safin, Yevhen Potapchuk, Svitlana Bobrynova, Dariia Karpova
Open Access
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Monitoring the efficiency of the educational process in the conditions of distance learning

The article investigates the efficiency of the educational process in the conditions of distance learning in the Cherkasy region during the second wave of the pandemic. The results and analysis of a questionnaire survey of teachers in Uman schools, conducted in order to test the effectiveness of distance learning, are presented. The main psychological problems that arose in the conditions of distance learning mode are identified, and a number of methodological recommendations for all participants in the educational process to overcome these problems are developed.

Irina Reznichenko, Victoriya Makarchuk, Myroslava Tkachuk, Vita Bezliudna, Alla Dobryden, Tetiana Okolnycha
Open Access
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Understanding dropout in distance and online learning by taking into account multiple factors

While extensive research has investigated why students drop out of university, most of this research has focused on campus-based training in the first year of university, or on some of the many elements that influence a student's life and learning pathway. Based on theoretical models of distance education dropout, we identified similar variables to those for on-campus learning but with effects that differ in importance. The objective of this research was to determine whether socio-demographic characteristics (e.g., age, gender, marital and family status), academic variables (e.g., study regime, parents’ levels of education), environmental characteristics (e.g., support from family and friends, financial and work situations), learning strategies (e.g. planning, performance, and reflection), the pedagogical organization of courses (e.g. technological tools, learning activities, and learning aids) and support for learning (e.g. interactions with tutors and peers) influenced students’ propensity to drop a course or their program of study in distance and online learning (DOL). This study used a questionnaire, a course analysis grid, and focus groups. For our sample of 791 students enrolled in a francophone DOL institution in Quebec, Canada, socio-demographic and academic variables largely explained their propensity to drop out. Learning strategies did not seem to be associated with dropping out of the course but were associated with not re-enrolling in the institution. For students who did not re-enrol after two sessions of study, the analysis of learning strategies in relation to socio-demographic, academic, and environmental variables identified thirteen predictive variables. The fewer learning strategies used by a student, as reported in the reflection phase of the study, the greater the likelihood that the student would drop out of their institution. Analyzing courses’ pedagogical organization allowed us to group the courses into five course models; the course model, when taken out of context, could not explain the propensity of students to drop out of a course, but it did contribute when we controlled for the socio-demographic and academic variables of the sample. For example, the study found that marital status and family status are two student-specific factors associated with the risk of course drop-out, but only in courses closer to course type 2 (oriented to formative assessment activities and Web site visits) and 4 (oriented to formative assessment activities and video viewing). For the other types of courses (1, 3 and 5), which are oriented towards reading text and practical exercises, these variables do not play a determining role in explaining dropout.Analyzing learning support showed that the support received is, on the whole, appropriate for the students. However, they are not fully satisfied. Some of the students would like to have more opportunities to interact with tutors in the form of individualized support and with their peers to reduce isolation and study stress. These exchanges would encourage greater perseverance, depending on the family and professional situation of certain students. For example, students who work full time and have a family have less need for interaction in their courses than those who do not work.

Louise Sauve, Cathia Papi, Guillaume Desjardins, Serge Gerin Lajoie
Open Access
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Conference Proceedings

Motivational design of an e-learning application for managers in healthcare

Managers in healthcare work in a daily field of tension characterized by the requirements of patients, their employees and other stakeholders. At the same time, they are permanently under great time pressure (Vincent-Höper et al., 2020). In addition, the fast pace of today’s world means that the required knowledge must be constantly revised or relearned, and they are repeatedly faced with new problems (Daniel & Wolbrink, 2019). The use of e-learning applications instead of traditional continuing education is one way to overcome such barriers (Reeves et al., 2017). However, if time resources are very tight, the motivation to use e-learning opportunities remains rather low.The motivation and thus the personal attitude of the learner can be affected by didactical design aspects (Zander & Heidig, 2019). Therefore, many contributions and models on motivational design and the design of virtual learning environments in the literature are available. One of these models is the ARCS model, which was first introduced by Keller in 1984. The model shows an instructional design for the four areas of human motivation to learn, namely Attention, Relevance, Confidence and Satisfaction, and what specific measures can help to promote motivation within these areas (Keller, 2010). The ARCS model has already been empirically validated and further developed several times (e.g. Zander & Heidig, 2019). This paper explores the application of the model in healthcare.Especially for the healthcare sector, e-learning applications are convenient due to their flexible usage possibilities. In context of the development of an e-learning application to guide healthcare managers to a situation-appropriate and reflective approach to decision-making processes, the following research question arises:Based on the ARCS model, what recommendations for designing a digital learning application can be made to increase the motivation of managers in healthcare for using it?Following the ARCS model, a checklist for the motivational design of the digital learning application was derived. Some of these design-related recommendations were tested in an online questionnaire to find out whether the proposed designs would motivate managers to use the learning application. The group of participants consisted of N=30 managers in healthcare from different fields. Thereby, the following measures were evaluated:•Attention:-The use of audiovisual effects-The evocation of learner responses•Relevance:-The use of a sympathetic character-The use of personalized language•Confidence:-The explanation of assessment criteria•Satisfaction:-The experience of success in the form of feedback-The use of transparent, understandable assessment measuresThis paper describes the results of the empirical survey within the healthcare sector. The results indicate that the recommendations based on the ARCS model are appealing, for example, in terms of evoking a learner response, personalized language or even the use of a transparent, understandable feedback system. Based on this, implications for the design of the e-learning application for managers in healthcare are determined. At the end, the relevance and limitations of the use of the ARCS model for e-learning applications in healthcare are discussed.

Marisa Schirmer, Mareike Sorge, Christina Mayer, Wiebke Stöver, Verena Nitsch, Susanne Mütze Niewöhner
Open Access
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Conference Proceedings

Effects of speaker’s voice pitch variation on listener’s intellectual concentration during online lecture

Background & PurposeUnder the Covid-19 pandemic, most schools all over the world had to suspend their face-to-face lectures and adopted online courses instead. Some surveys have revealed that while this new educational format has advantages of convenience and flexibility, there also exist some problems, such as students' increased fatigue and lower intellectual concentration. However, it's difficult to find any effective solutions that can directly improve the intellectual concentration from the students' side currently.To solve this problem, we have focused on the online course system. From the viewpoint of cognitive psychology, sound is one of the essential factors that can influence people's intellectual concentration, and the speakers' voice is one of the most important parts of the sound source in online courses.The purpose of this study is, therefore, to explore the influence of speakers' vocal parameters, specifically pitch variation, on listeners' intellectual concentration during online lectures.Outline of this study(Step1) Selection of the optimal vocal pitch level This step is aiming to select the optimal vocal pitch level that does no harm in keeping intellectual concentration nor increasing the cognitive fatigue among the listeners during the online course system. (Step 2) Exploration of the optimal pitch variation on listeners' intellectual concentrationIn this step, the optimal pitch variation of different patterns on listeners' intellectual concentration will be explored by experiments. For example, Normal Pitch→High Pitch→Normal Pitch (NHN pattern), or Normal Pitch→Low Pitch→Normal Pitch (NLN pattern) etc.(Step 3) Development of feedback control to recover listeners’ intellectual concentrationAfter finding optimal pitch variation for refreshing listeners’ intellectual concentration in step 2, then in this step, feedback-control will be developed to recover listeners’ intellectual concentration during the online course system.In this presentation, we will report the method and result of Step 1.MethodAn experiment was conducted with 6 students at Kyoto University (3 males and 3 females), and all of them are native Chinese speakers.The stimulus given to the participants were lecture videos in which audios in 3 pitch levels (Low, High and Normal) and 2 types of timbre (Male and Female) were prepared.Since this study is focusing on the auditory factors, to simulate the online course system, the audio stimuli using the content of passages of the Reading part in the TOEFL iBT exam were used because they are similar to university-level online course content. Furthermore, to alleviate the influence of different English levels between each participant, all the contents have been translated into Chinese.After listening to each audio, each participant was asked to answer a problem related to the content, and the correct answer rate would be used as a scale of their intellectual concentration level.In addition, their brain waves were measured by a single-channel device, NeuroSky MindWave Mobile 2 headset while they were listening to the audio. The index ‘Attention’ calculated by NeuroSky software has been also used as a reference of listeners’ intellectual concentration level.As a result of the experiment, female voice under normal pitch has been verified as the optimal pitch level to proceed to the next step of this study.

Dongliang Liu, Kimi Ueda, Hirotake Ishii, Hiroshi Shimoda, Fumiaki Obayashi
Open Access
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Conference Proceedings

The incidence of Information Anxiety in virtual education in Mexico during the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic

The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic that occurred at the beginning of 2020 caused education to migrate to digital platforms and environments, resulting in the modification of educational models which have had a direct impact on teaching work, in the modality of learning and how virtual teaching itself was administered, such a situation caused a rethinking of the use of digital tools and its impact on said practice. Mexico has been the country that has had the most stumbling blocks with respect to this new modality in what corresponds to North America, caused by the term known as Information Anxiety, which is defined by the saturation of information, causing a lack of understanding of what is presented by part of the students, learning barriers and misuse of the information itself. This study addresses an exploratory analysis of the consequences of this phenomenon in online education in Mexico and its impact on academic society.

Adriana Acero Gutierrez, Mariel Garcia-Hernandez, Marco Marin Alvarez, and Nancy Alejandra Noriega Tovilla
Open Access
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Conference Proceedings

Applying Service Design to Online Learning to Increase User Experience

Advanced Internet development and the impact of COVID-19 have made online learning the most convenient way for learners to acquire knowledge. Online courses enable learners to communicate directly with teachers one-on-one and achieve mutual learning and real-time interaction. However, some instructors and learners might encounter operational difficulties during online learning. For example, learners might suffer from a frustrating emotion after failing to complete a series of tasks by operating the online learning platform since they are worried about making mistakes during the class. Moreover, not every person is familiar with the online learning software; it is imperative to establish guidelines for teachers and students to realize the software operation pattern before the class starts and improve students' self-confidence during the online course. Therefore, this article aimed to understand learners' pain points while using the online communication software-Google Meet during the online course and applied design services approaches to ideate the problems and conclude the suggested operational guideline. Accordingly, this article applied service design tools, including user journey map, how might we (HMWs) method to improve user experience and ultimately achieve an obstacles-free online learning environment.

Liu Shuo-Fang and Wu Yi-Chieh
Open Access
Article
Conference Proceedings

Eye-tracking in simulator training and assessment: A semi-structured meta-review

The potential for using eye-tracking as quantitative and objective tools for training and assessment has gained substantial attention across domain with high standards for safety [1]. The aim of this study is to synthesize results from previous reviews on eye-tracking support in training and assessment for work in complex socio-technical domains. In particular, the objective is to map out a) how eye-tracking is currently used in training and assessment, and b) the barriers and benefits of using eye-tracking reported in the literature. To answer the research questions, this study is designed as a meta-review, that is, a review of previous reviews or meta-analyses [2]. Since this study takes on broad re-search questions and aims to include different types of methodological contributions from various field to synthesize the state of knowledge between disciplines, a semi-structured review approach is chosen. Semi-structured approaches are suitable for mapping a field of research and synthesize the state of knowledge to set an agenda for future studies [3]. The approach takes on systematic search strategies but often lack the level of scientific rigour of systematic or scoping reviews. What is considered important for the semi-structured review method is a transparent and developed research strategy for the audi-ence to determine the worth and value of the chosen topic, method used and findings from the study [3]. In accordance with best practices, the study design is guided by the PRISMA-protocol for systematic reviews [4]. A search for literature was conducted in February 2021. Advanced search options for discriminating type of articles (reviews) and timespan (2010-2021) were used on three databases: Scopus, Web of Science and Science Direct. Using search words “eye tracking”, “simulator”, “training” and “assessment” when searching through article titles, abstracts and keywords, a total of 403 studies were identified. After removing duplicates, 373 studies were screened. Articles that didn’t meet the inclusion criteria or lacked an explicit focus on eye-tracking support in simulator training and/or assessment were excluded. In all, 20 full-text articles were assessed for eligibility. After reading full-text, 12 studies remained and are included in the meta-review. The results show how eye-tracking most commonly is used for 1) summative assessment of technical skills, 2) formative assessment of non-technical skills, 3) identifying differences between novices and experts, and 4) capturing expert gaze patterns. The results show how eye-tracking is appreciated as an unobtrusive technology that enables a quantitative assessment of objective parameters. Hence, the promise of using eye-tracking for informing instructional design as well as for designing training systems and improve learning environments is clear. However, it is important to consider that implementing eye-tracking is a rather expensive and time-consuming endeavour that requires carefully designed tasks and task analyses to fulfil its potential. References1.Rosch, J. L., & Vogel-Walcutt, J. J. A review of eye-tracking applications as tools for training. Cogn. Technol. Work. 15(3), 313–327 (2013)2.Sarrami‐Foroushani, P., Travaglia, J., Debono, D., Clay‐Williams, R., & Braithwaite, J. Scoping meta‐review: introducing a new methodology. Clin. Transl. Sci. 8(1), 77–81 (2015)3.Snyder, H. Literature review as a research methodology: An overview and guidelines. J. Bus. Res, 104, 333–339 (2019)4.Moher, D., Shamseer, L., Clarke, M., Ghersi, D., Liberati, A., Petticrew, M., ... & Stewart, L. A. Preferred reporting items for systematic review and meta-analysis protocols (PRISMA-P) 2015 statement. Syst. Rev. 4(1), 1-9 (2015)

Charlott Sellberg, Gesa Praetorius, Markus Nivala
Open Access
Article
Conference Proceedings

Analyzing Korean Reading course and Designing Education -A Focus on learner's eye-tracking analysis-

The purpose of this study is to propose a model for designing reading education that can improve reading ability by identifying and linguistically analyzing how the reading ability required for reading-comprehension is presented at each learner level. In this study, the eye-tracking experiment was conducted with divided into lexical and sentence levels which are the stage of comprehension corresponding to the subelement of the reading-comprehension, and the results are as follows. First, at the lexical level, it was confirmed that cognitive speed differs depending on the degree of preservation of the base form of the conjugations of the predicates with the same base form. Second, at the sentence level, we confirmed that the unstable reading-comprehension process appeared in the complex compared to the short sentence, even if the sentence length, vocabulary level, and vocabulary were similar and in the case of that the sentence has the same meaning. This paper suggests that the spelling, vocabulary, conjugation, grammar knowledge that correspond to the lower level should be included as the elements of education.

Seung Nam Min, Jungnam Im, Murali Subramaniyam
Open Access
Article
Conference Proceedings

How Does Color Matching of Web-based Courseware Affect Learners' Satisfaction

More and more network teaching activities make the visual design of multimedia courseware become more and more important. As the main means and tools of auxiliary teaching, multimedia courseware carries a large amount of information, and because of the important influence of color on the audience's attention, recognition, pleasure and other aspects, it is particularly important to choose the right color and collocation of courseware. This paper discusses the influence of different combinations of courseware background color and text color on audience satisfaction in multimedia network teaching. In this experiment, 56 undergraduates were tested by scale, and the hue, lightness, purity and text color of background color were taken as experimental variables. Firstly, taking the hue of the background color as the independent variable, the experiments are carried out when the text color is black and white respectively. Then, in accordance with the same method, the purity and brightness of background color were taken as independent variables respectively, and the experimental data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA, fitting curve, paired sample T test and other methods. The results showed that :(1) different background colors had significant influence on viewers' satisfaction (P< 0.05), and due to different text colors (black and white), audience satisfaction is different. Among them, when the text color is black, under different hue background, the audience's satisfaction is ranked from high to the bottom: orange, yellow-green, green, blue-green; When the text color is white, blue, bluish purple are preferred. In addition, the greater the difference between background color and text color, the clearer the visual presentation of content and the higher the satisfaction (P< 0.05). (2) Under the change of brightness of different background colors, viewers' satisfaction also showed significant difference (P< 0.05), the higher the brightness of background color, the higher the satisfaction degree, showing an exponential relationship basically. (3) There was no significant difference in viewer satisfaction between different background colors (P> 0.05). The result of this study, through the data, provides the basis for the color design of network multimedia courseware, which is beneficial to improve the learning experience of the audience in the network teaching.

Zichen Zhang, Sha Liu, Weiyi Li
Open Access
Article
Conference Proceedings

A Study for the Impact of Value Co-creation on Course Performance in Higher Education

Value co-creation has become an increasingly important issue in higher education. Existing studies point out that value co-creation has many effects on students and teaching, but there are few studies on the effects of value co-creation on students’ course performance. Whether the degree of instructional value co-creation is reflected in student performance is the main issue of this study. Thus, with the course Digital Publication Design as the case study, this study uses a one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) with a sample of 33 students to investigate the relationship between value co-creation and students’ course performance in higher education. The results indicate that the degree of value co-creation in the course does not positively affect the course grade, which may be related to the inadequacy of existing scoring mechanisms and the degree of student motivation to engage in co-creation. The paper concludes with further discussions of modifications to the experimental study to and for subsequent use of co-creation in higher education.

Lu Lu, Hsien-Hui Tang
Open Access
Article
Conference Proceedings

Behavior-based performance optimization in military training environments

The quality of instruction Warfighters receive can substantially influence mission readiness. As such, it is important that military instructors develop and maintain instructional competencies to adequately promote relevant knowledge and skills among trainees. However, unlike K-12 educators, active-duty military instructors are not often provided opportunities for formal instructional training; that is, training on how to teach (Malone, Vogel-Walcutt, Ross, & Phillips, 2014). While their content, domain knowledge, and leadership skills are strong, military instructors lack “expert instructor techniques” and skill in implementing useful strategies to convey their knowledge to trainees. They are typically not afforded time and resources to develop these skills prior to taking charge of training new members of the Armed Forces. There was a need to design training tools for accelerating mastery among military instructors via rapid acquisition of high-quality instructional skills to ensure effective learning and retention among trainees.To address this challenge, Design Interactive developed an adaptive training tool, the Interactive Military Instructor Training and Assessment Technology (IMITATE). There was a focus on incorporating research-based training interventions such as video self-modeling, prompting, performance reflection, practice and feedback to support accelerated mastery of observable skills. The goal of the IMITATE program was to optimize the learning experience for military instructors with a tool that they could utilize to sharpen and receive interactive feedback on the skills that are crucial to being a good instructor. The system implements customizable rating systems made up of key performance areas (KPAs), broken down into observable behaviors with detailed rating anchors. This creates a competency- based approach for instructors, who through IMITATE, can receive structured, personalized feedback to quickly bridge performance gaps. IMITATE utilizes a three-stage approach for training – Prepare, Practice, and Assess. The Prepare stage provides introductory video-based observation and training that identifies the KPAs and behaviors and illustrates expert performance in the form of lessons. In the Practice stage, instructors practice their skills while receiving standardized, behavior-based assessment through an intuitive rating tool that provides observers with guidance on how to rate, promoting consistency between observers. The final stage, Assess, is where results are captured and displayed for immediate, actionable, structured and personalized feedback. A video-based after-action review offers session playback paired with time-synced ratings to highlight effective or ineffective performance. Built-in analytics enable performance comparisons between individuals and groups over time. Usability for IMITATE is consistently being assessed and refined based on end-user feedback. This iterative, user-centered design process enables a learning tool that is easy to use and applicable across a variety of domains. Integrating these research-based training interventions with a user-centered design process enabled the Design Interactive team to build upon existing military training protocols to enhance instructor competence, reduce instructor development costs, and improve mission readiness. This method is currently informing additional R&D efforts across the Marine Corps and Air Force and has been tested across a wide range of use cases from military, medical, academic, and industrial settings.

Audrey Zlatkin, Costas Koufogazos, Gwen Campbell
Open Access
Article
Conference Proceedings

A Care-oriented Design Process Model for Sustainable Design Education

In the unsustainable development of commodity production and resource consumption, designers are both part of the root of the problem and the agents of its solution. Education institutions and teaching plans bear a profound moral responsibility to improve designers’ ability to create a sustainable future. This chapter goes deep into the design education curriculum to explore a design process model that can be specifically applied to the field of care design.Education for sustainable development has become the main concern of environmental education since the 1990s (United Nations 1992). David W. Orr calls for an education system shift: ‘This crisis cannot be solved by the same kind of education that helped create the problems. Against the test of sustainability, our ideas, theories, sciences, humanities, social sciences, pedagogy, and educational institutions have not measured up’ (1992, p. 83). The UN Decade of Education for Sustainable Development (2005–2014) highlighted the key role of Education for Sustainable Development (ESD), aiming at ‘integrating the principles and practices of sustainable development into all aspects of education and learning, to encourage changes in knowledge, values and attitudes with the vision of enabling a more sustainable and just society for all’ (UNESCO, 2005, p.9). It fundamentally mobilized education to create relevant teaching rationales, teaching methods and learning content.The evolution of design for sustainability has been advanced ESD in higher education institutions and has created a wide array of teaching methods and tools, such as Service Design (Miso, 2020), Design Futuring (Fry, 2009), Transition Design (Jones, 2014), Systemic Design (Irwin, 2015), Design for Behaviour Change (Bhamra & Dewberry, 2007) and Ecology of Care (Coxon, 2017). The continuous improvement of sustainable design education helps designers to conceive a number of different conceptual solutions as a whole, and to take into consideration the wide array of impacts that their decisions have on people, the environment and the economy. However, the problem in curriculum education is that its focus is more on the designer’s sustainable achievements, rather than the designer's sustainable awareness and behavior changes. Strengthen the correlation between designers’sustainability awareness and design results would be appreciated.East China University of Science and Technology (ECUST) is a comprehensive university with a strong background in science and engineering. The fundamental design course teaching at the School of Art Design and Media has provided me with excellent research opportunities. In this context, I could integrate the care-oriented sustainable design course into the curriculum system and conduct research directly. I noticed that sustainable design is a special and independent concept rarely mentioned in existing design courses. As expected from traditional courses, design courses focus on creating visually compelling and fully functional works. Although some ‘green’ design projects are sometimes carried out, in most cases green design courseworks focus on finding solutions in terms of principles, technology, materials, etc., and finally propose a small product design concept without considering the whole systemof thought at the basis of design. Also, most part of the courses are devoted to the introduction of the double diamond model that guides the design process, even though it does not make full use of the scientific nature of the design process itself. Sometimes, design research is separated from design results. I am interested in reshaping the way designers think about sustainability in the field of traditional design education, by considering all the different impacts of design decisions on people, the environment and the economy.By understanding the nature of care, I intend to develop a design process model and teaching tools from the perspective of care, which can be extrapolated as a care-oriented, sustainable design education course. The design process can be seen as a learning process which provides deeper information about sustainability challenges and opportunities by influencing students’ design thinking and design activity. On the one hand, the design process model could build a clear teaching idea for teachers. On the other hand, it could raise students’ awareness of caring, and transform this consciousness into specific design schemes, which can provide insight into problems and propose solutions from larger and more complex perspectives, thereby generating new sustainable design ideas. This newly developed design process emphasizes the role of the immediate-environment in promoting clients and products care.

Ying Jiang
Open Access
Article
Conference Proceedings

COVID- 19 PANDEMIC STATE: TEACHING CHILDREN COLORS WITH MOBILE APPLICATION BASED ON AUGMENTED REALITY

The spread of, COVID- 19 from Wuhan, China in December 2019 enforced Draconian measures in form of social barriers to control the COVID- 19 pandemic. Many governments replaced face-to-face education in schools with remote education through the internet. Efficient and effective teaching techniques are still being sought. Especially, lessons practical training exercises need environmental platforms to enhance teaching yet physical platforms could have Pandemic related risks for humans. The risks are even higher, for children in primary education and for children with neurodevelopmental disorders who need to learn with repeated exercises. This study proposes a color learning mobile application for children that is based on augmented reality. The application is supposed to teach colors to young pupils in an enjoyable way. In this paper, three primary colors: red, yellow, blue, and three secondary colors: orange, green, and purple are taught with 3-D ball animation based on the augmented reality technique. This animation introduces how the secondary colors originate from the combination of primary colors. This is an enjoyable, teaching-learning, and self- repeatable activity for children in a COVID-19 pandemic state.

Nigar Tuğbagül Altan, Oğuzkaan Sarıkaya
Open Access
Article
Conference Proceedings

Measuring Mental Models

The construct of mental models has been a useful tool for training and learning. Many instructors ask students to draw how something works or their understanding of the subject. While this gives the instructor useful feedback, comparing their own understanding to the students understanding. There are many variations in understanding that are distinct yet correct. The Structure, Behavior and Function framework (SBF, Hmelo-Silver and Pfeffer, 2004) successfully described how mental models change at different levels of learning. However, measuring mental models can present an analysis challenge. This study outlines another way to apply the SBF framework to quantify a person’s mental model of a common task: posting a message to a social network. Was a person's mental model of this task universal? Did participants understand what happened to their data? Participants in this study were university students from three different regions of the United States who were familiar with social media. Participants described in words, pictures, or a diagram of what happens to a comment after it is entered on a social media site. Results demonstrate the lack of a universal mental model amongst participants which suggests a poverty in how data is shared in social media. The analysis methodology proved useful when confronted with the three data types: words, pictures, or a diagram in a single data set.

Lisa Elliott, Morgan Janney
Open Access
Article
Conference Proceedings

Models and Measures of Arts Teacher Competency under COVID-19 Normalization

Arts teacher competency refer to the collection of professional skills and personality traits that contribute to excellent working performance in accordance to occupation requirements. The education has a huge changed from traditional face-to-face classroom to online environment when the epidemic normalization of COVID-19, and the change has a profound impact on teaching method and puts forward higher requirements for arts teacher's competency. In this paper, we adopt analytic hierarchy process (AHP) to establish an evaluation model for arts teacher competency. The model contained ethic, teaching skills, IT application and non-technical skills (NTS), which provided a theoretical basis for arts teacher selection and continuing education.

Pei Yan, Wang Manman, Zhao Yating, Yihang Du
Open Access
Article
Conference Proceedings

Development of a Fundamental and Operational Marksmanship Score based on Expert and Novice Marksmanship Data

Marksmanship is a primary contributor to the military’s quantification of Soldier lethality. Traditionally, Soldiers are graded using a standard marksmanship qualification task, assessing hit location and target distance. Additional components (e.g., weapon handling, timing) are not incorporated. This research developed a comprehensive marksmanship scoring method, focused on fundamental and operational marksmanship skills. A scoring index facilitates the understanding of the entire operational marksmanship process, from target detection to acquisition/engagement. Analysis of this tradespace helps improve training and can be utilized as a metric of performance for equipment evaluations. This novel scoring method includes all aspects of the marksmanship process divided into three components, including lethality (e.g., accuracy, precision, decision making), mobility (e.g., target acquisition time), and weapons handling (e.g., stability, trigger control). Utilizing marksmanship data from 16 Soldier volunteers (8 experts and 8 novices) on a static and dynamic shooting scenario, outcomes were normalized to distribute the variables’ two anchor scores. Weights were assigned to each metric that contributed to the combined scores. Weightings were determined utilizing a Student’s t-test pairwise comparison of means of the expert and novice scores for each metric. Components with highly statistically significant differences (p < .01) between the expert and novice were weighted more importantly and those with less difference (p < .05) were weighted less importantly. Weighted indices were applied to a marksmanship dataset of normally distributed skill level Infantry Soldiers (N = 46). This verification ensured that weightings created a normal distribution across the group, while assessing fundamentals and operational marksmanship skills. These new performance indices provide a single overarching score, representative of various aspects of marksmanship beyond simple shot coordinates, resulting in a performance metric that is easier for the end-user to comprehend. Future application of this scoring method are valuable for both training and acquisition test and evaluation performance assessments.

Stephanie Brown, K. Blake Mitchell
Open Access
Article
Conference Proceedings